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Proceedings Paper

VR-simulation cataract surgery in non-experienced trainees: evolution of surgical skill
Author(s): Per Söderberg; Markus Erngrund; Eva Skarman; Leif Nordh; Carl-Gustaf Laurell
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Paper Abstract

Conclusion: The current data imply that the performance index as defined herein is a valid measure of the performance of a trainee using the virtual reality phacoemulsification simulator. Further, the performance index increase linearly with measurement cycles for less than five measurement cycles. To fully use the learning potential of the simulator more than four measurement cycles are required. Materials and methods: Altogether, 10 trainees were introduced to the simulator by an instructor and then performed a training program including four measurement cycles with three iterated measurements of the simulation at the end of each cycle. The simulation characteristics was standardized and defined in 14 parameters. The simulation was measured separately for the sculpting phase in 21 variables, and for the evacuation phase in 22 variables. A performance index based on all measured variables was estimated for the sculpting phase and the evacuation phase, respectively, for each measurement and the three measurements for each cycle were averaged. Finally, the performance as a function of measurement cycle was estimated for each trainee with regression, assuming a straight line. The estimated intercept and inclination coefficients, respectively, were finally averaged for all trainees. Results: The performance increased linearly with the number of measurement cycles both for the sculpting and for the evacuation phase.

Paper Details

Date Published: 10 March 2011
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 7885, Ophthalmic Technologies XXI, 78850L (10 March 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.881527
Show Author Affiliations
Per Söderberg, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)
Univ. of Miami (United States)
Markus Erngrund, St. Eriks Eye Hospital (Sweden)
Eva Skarman, Melerit AB (Sweden)
Leif Nordh, Melerit AB (Sweden)
Carl-Gustaf Laurell, St. Eriks Eye Hospital (Sweden)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7885:
Ophthalmic Technologies XXI
Fabrice Manns; Per G. Söderberg; Arthur Ho, Editor(s)

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