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Proceedings Paper

Ion distribution in ionic electroactive polymer actuators
Author(s): Yang Liu; Caiyan Lu; Stephen Twigg; Jun-Hong Lin; Gokhan Hatipoglu; Sheng Liu; Nicholas Winograd; Q. M. Zhang
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Paper Abstract

Ionic electroactive polymer (i-EAP) actuators with large strain and low operation voltage are extremely attractive for applications such as MEMS and smart materials and systems. In-depth understanding of the ion transport and storage under electrical stimulus is crucial for optimizing the actuator performance. In this study, we show the dominances of ion diffusion charge and we perform direct measurements of the steady state ion distribution in charged and frozen actuators by using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). High temperature actuators that consist Aquivion ionomer membrane and high melting temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium chloride (BMMI-Cl]) served in this study. Electrical impedance, I-V characteristics, and potential step charging of the actuator are characterized at 25°C and 100°C. The conductivity of the actuator is 0.3mS/cm at 100°C and 2.9μS/cm at 25°C, respectively. The electrochemical window of the device is 3V and a 2mm tip displacement is observed under 2.5V 0.2Hz at 100°C. A semi-quantitative depth profile of the relative ion concentration in charged and frozen actuators is measured by ToF-SIMS. The result shows that, unlike semiconductors, ions do not deplete from the electrodes with same signs. Due to a strong cluster effect between the ions, Cl- and BMMI+ accumulate near both cathode and anode. Furthermore, the profile indicates that the ion size difference causes the BMMI+ space charge layers (~6um) much thicker than those of Cl- (~0.5um).

Paper Details

Date Published: 29 March 2011
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 7976, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2011, 79762O (29 March 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.880528
Show Author Affiliations
Yang Liu, The Pennsylvania State Univ. (United States)
Caiyan Lu, The Pennsylvania State Univ. (United States)
Stephen Twigg, Villanova Univ. (United States)
Jun-Hong Lin, The Pennsylvania State Univ. (United States)
Gokhan Hatipoglu, The Pennsylvania State Univ. (United States)
Sheng Liu, Strategic Polymer Sciences, Inc. (United States)
Nicholas Winograd, The Pennsylvania State Univ. (United States)
Q. M. Zhang, The Pennsylvania State Univ. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7976:
Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2011
Yoseph Bar-Cohen; Federico Carpi, Editor(s)

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