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Proceedings Paper

Stochastic acid-based quenching in chemically amplified photoresists: a simulation study
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Paper Abstract

BACKGROUND: The stochastic nature of acid-base quenching in chemically amplified photoresists leads to variations in the resulting acid concentration during post-exposure bake, which leads to line-edge roughness (LER) of the resulting features. METHODS: Using a stochastic resist simulator, we predicted the mean and standard deviation of the acid concentration after post-exposure bake for an open-frame exposure and fit the results to empirical expressions. RESULTS: The mean acid concentration after quenching can be predicted using the reaction-limited rate equation and an effective rate constant. The effective quenching rate constant is predicted by an empirical expression. A second empirical expression for the standard deviation of the acid concentration matched the output of the PROLITH stochastic resist model to within a few percent CONCLUSIONS: Predicting the stochastic uncertainty in acid concentration during post-exposure bake for 193-nm and extreme ultraviolet resists allows optimization of resist processing and formulations, and may form the basis of a comprehensive LER model.

Paper Details

Date Published: 16 April 2011
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 7972, Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXVIII, 79720V (16 April 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.879831
Show Author Affiliations
Chris A. Mack, Lithoguru.com (United States)
John J. Biafore, KLA-Tencor Corp. (United States)
Mark D. Smith, KLA-Tencor Corp. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7972:
Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXVIII
Robert D. Allen; Mark H. Somervell, Editor(s)

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