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Proceedings Paper

The influence of surface chemistry on GSR particles: using XPS to complement SEM/EDS analytical techniques
Author(s): A. J. Schwoeble; Brian R. Strohmeier; John D. Piasecki
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Paper Abstract

Gunshot residue particles (GSR) were examined using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) to illustrate the size, shape, morphology, and elemental composition normally observed in particulate resulting from a discharged firearm. Determining the presence of lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), and barium (Ba), barring other elemental tags, fused together in a single particle with the correct morphology, is all that is required for the positive identification of GSR. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), however, can reveal more detailed information on surface chemistry than SEM/EDS. XPS is a highly surface-sensitive (≤ ~10 nm), non-destructive, analytical technique that provides qualitative information for all elements except hydrogen and helium. Nanometer-scale sampling depth and its ability to provide unique chemical state information make XPS a potential technique for providing important knowledge on the surface chemistry of GSR that complements results obtained from SEM/EDS analysis.

Paper Details

Date Published: 9 June 2010
PDF: 16 pages
Proc. SPIE 7729, Scanning Microscopy 2010, 772916 (9 June 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.863906
Show Author Affiliations
A. J. Schwoeble, RJ Lee Group, Inc. (United States)
Brian R. Strohmeier, RJ Lee Group, Inc. (United States)
John D. Piasecki, RJ Lee Group, Inc. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7729:
Scanning Microscopy 2010
Michael T. Postek; Dale E. Newbury; S. Frank Platek; David C. Joy, Editor(s)

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