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Proceedings Paper

On-orbit adjustment concepts for the Generation-X Observatory
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Paper Abstract

Generation-X is required to be an X-ray observatory with 50 m2 effective collecting area and 0.1 arcsec half-power diameter (HPD) angular resolution at 1 keV. It is conceived that a launch vehicle such as that studied for the Ares V will carry a monolithic 16-m-diameter mirror to the earth-sun L2 point. Even with such a vehicle, the reflectors comprising the ≈ 250 nested shells must be extremely light-weight. Therefore their figure and alignment cannot be achieved on the ground, and likely could not be maintained through the launch environment. We will present a conceptual solution to those constraints: adjustable X-ray optics, as a case of "adaptive" optics where the stability once in orbit should require adjustments no more frequently than yearly. The figure would be adjusted via thin-film actuators deposited directly to the back (non-reflecting) side of each element. This bi-morph configuration would impart in-plane strains via the piezoelectric or electrostrictive effect. Requirements of the adjustment are to the order of a few nanometer precision. Each shell, and each module, must also be aligned, to tolerances of about 0.1 micrometer. We conceive that on-orbit data would be acquired by a built-in Hartmann system for the alignment adjustments and low-order figure, and by ring profile measurements of a very bright celestial X-ray source to correct figure errors up to the mid-frequency range of several hundredths cycles mm−1.

Paper Details

Date Published: 29 September 2010
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 7803, Adaptive X-Ray Optics, 78030J (29 September 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.862353
Show Author Affiliations
Daniel A. Schwartz, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
Roger Brissenden, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
Mark Freeman, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
Terrance Gaetz, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
Paul Gorenstein, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
Diab Jerius, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
Michael Juda, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
Paul Reid, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
Scott Wolk, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
Timo Saha, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
William Zhang, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Stephen O'Dell, NASA Marshall Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Susan Trolier-McKinstry, The Pennsylvania State Univ. (United States)
Derek Wilke, The Pennsylvania State Univ. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7803:
Adaptive X-Ray Optics
Ali M. Khounsary; Stephen L. O'Dell; Sergio R. Restaino, Editor(s)

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