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Proceedings Paper

Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays for three-dimensional imaging LADAR
Author(s): Mark A. Itzler; Mark Entwistle; Mark Owens; Ketan Patel; Xudong Jiang; Krystyna Slomkowski; Sabbir Rangwala; Peter F. Zalud; Tom Senko; John Tower; Joseph Ferraro
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Paper Abstract

We report on the development of focal plane arrays (FPAs) employing two-dimensional arrays of InGaAsP-based Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs). These FPAs incorporate InP/InGaAs(P) Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs) to create pixels that detect single photons at shortwave infrared wavelengths with high efficiency and low dark count rates. GmAPD arrays are hybridized to CMOS read-out integrated circuits (ROICs) that enable independent laser radar (LADAR) time-of-flight measurements for each pixel, providing three-dimensional image data at frame rates approaching 200 kHz. Microlens arrays are used to maintain high fill factor of greater than 70%. We present full-array performance maps for two different types of sensors optimized for operation at 1.06 μm and 1.55 μm, respectively. For the 1.06 μm FPAs, overall photon detection efficiency of >40% is achieved at <20 kHz dark count rates with modest cooling to ~250 K using integrated thermoelectric coolers. We also describe the first evalution of these FPAs when multi-photon pulses are incident on single pixels. The effective detection efficiency for multi-photon pulses shows excellent agreement with predictions based on Poisson statistics. We also characterize the crosstalk as a function of pulse mean photon number. Relative to the intrinsic crosstalk contribution from hot carrier luminescence that occurs during avalanche current flows resulting from single incident photons, we find a modest rise in crosstalk for multi-photon incident pulses that can be accurately explained by direct optical scattering.

Paper Details

Date Published: 27 August 2010
PDF: 14 pages
Proc. SPIE 7808, Infrared Remote Sensing and Instrumentation XVIII, 78080C (27 August 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.861600
Show Author Affiliations
Mark A. Itzler, Princeton Lightwave, Inc. (United States)
Mark Entwistle, Princeton Lightwave, Inc. (United States)
Mark Owens, Princeton Lightwave, Inc. (United States)
Ketan Patel, Princeton Lightwave, Inc. (United States)
Xudong Jiang, Princeton Lightwave, Inc. (United States)
Krystyna Slomkowski, Princeton Lightwave, Inc. (United States)
Sabbir Rangwala, Princeton Lightwave, Inc. (United States)
Peter F. Zalud, Sarnoff Corp. (United States)
Tom Senko, Sarnoff Corp. (United States)
John Tower, Sarnoff Corp. (United States)
Joseph Ferraro, Sarnoff Corp. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7808:
Infrared Remote Sensing and Instrumentation XVIII
Marija Strojnik; Gonzalo Paez, Editor(s)

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