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Proceedings Paper

Design, synthesis, and characterization of fluorine-free PAGs for 193-nm lithography
Author(s): Sen Liu; Martin Glodde; Pushkara Rao Varanasi
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Paper Abstract

Photoacid generators (PAGs) are a key component in chemically amplified resists used in photolithography. Perfluorooctanesulfonates (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkylsulfonates (PFAS) have been well adopted as PAGs in 193 nm photoresist. Recently, concerns have been raised about their environmental impact due to their chemical persistency, bioaccumulation and toxicity. It is a general interest to find environmentally benign PAGs that are free of fluorine atoms. Here we describe the design, synthesis and characterization of a series of novel fluorine-free onium salts as PAGs for 193 nm photoresists. These PAGs demonstrated desirable physical and lithography properties when compared with PFAS-based PAGs for both dry and immersion exposures.

Paper Details

Date Published: 26 March 2010
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 7639, Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXVII, 76390D (26 March 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.846600
Show Author Affiliations
Sen Liu, IBM Systems and Technology Group (United States)
Martin Glodde, IBM Systems and Technology Group (United States)
Pushkara Rao Varanasi, IBM Systems and Technology Group (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7639:
Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXVII
Robert D. Allen, Editor(s)

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