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Proceedings Paper

Accurate step-FMCW ultrasound ranging and comparison with pulse-echo signaling methods
Author(s): Shyam Natarajan; Rahul S. Singh; Michael Lee; Brian P. Cox; Martin O. Culjat; Warren S. Grundfest; Hua Lee
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Paper Abstract

This paper presents a method setup for high-frequency ultrasound ranging based on stepped frequency-modulated continuous waves (FMCW), potentially capable of producing a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared to traditional pulse-echo signaling. In current ultrasound systems, the use of higher frequencies (10-20 MHz) to enhance resolution lowers signal quality due to frequency-dependent attenuation. The proposed ultrasound signaling format, step-FMCW, is well-known in the radar community, and features lower peak power, wider dynamic range, lower noise figure and simpler electronics in comparison to pulse-echo systems. In pulse-echo ultrasound ranging, distances are calculated using the transmit times between a pulse and its subsequent echoes. In step-FMCW ultrasonic ranging, the phase and magnitude differences at stepped frequencies are used to sample the frequency domain. Thus, by taking the inverse Fourier transform, a comprehensive range profile is recovered that has increased immunity to noise over conventional ranging methods. Step-FMCW and pulse-echo waveforms were created using custom-built hardware consisting of an arbitrary waveform generator and dual-channel super heterodyne receiver, providing high SNR and in turn, accuracy in detection.

Paper Details

Date Published: 12 March 2010
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 7629, Medical Imaging 2010: Ultrasonic Imaging, Tomography, and Therapy, 76290D (12 March 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.845539
Show Author Affiliations
Shyam Natarajan, Ctr. for Advanced Surgical and Interventional Technology, Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)
Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)
Rahul S. Singh, Ctr. for Advanced Surgical and Interventional Technology, Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)
Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)
Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)
Michael Lee, Ctr. for Advanced Surgical and Interventional Technology, Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)
Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)
Brian P. Cox, Ctr. for Advanced Surgical and Interventional Technology, Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)
Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)
Martin O. Culjat, Ctr. for Advanced Surgical and Interventional Technology, Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)
Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)
Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)
Warren S. Grundfest, Ctr. for Advanced Surgical and Interventional Technology, Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)
Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)
Hua Lee, Ctr. for Advanced Surgical and Interventional Technology, Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)
Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)
Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7629:
Medical Imaging 2010: Ultrasonic Imaging, Tomography, and Therapy
Jan D'hooge; Stephen A. McAleavey, Editor(s)

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