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Proceedings Paper

The generalized NEQ and detectability index for tomosynthesis and cone-beam CT: from cascaded systems analysis to human observers
Author(s): G. J. Gang; J. Lee; J. W. Stayman; D. J. Tward; W. Zbijewski; J. L. Prince; J. H. Siewerdsen
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Paper Abstract

Purpose: In the early development of new imaging modalities - such as tomosynthesis and cone-beam CT (CBCT) - an accurate predictive model for imaging performance is particularly valuable in identifying the physical factors that govern image quality and guiding system optimization. In this work, a task-based cascaded systems model for detectability index is proposed that describes not only the signal and noise propagation in the 2D (projection) and 3D (reconstruction) imaging chain but also the influence of background anatomical noise. The extent to which generalized detectability index provides a valid metric for imaging performance was assessed through direct comparison to human observer experiments. Methods: Detectability index (d') was generalized to include anatomical background noise in the same manner as the generalized noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ) proposed by Barrett et al. (Proc. SPIE Med. Imaging, Vol. 1090, 1989). Anatomical background noise was measured from a custom phantom designed to present power-law spectral density comparable to various anatomical sites (e.g., breast and lung). Theoretical calculations of d' as a function of the sourcedetector orbital extent (θtot) was obtained from a 3D cascaded systems analysis model for tomosynthesis and cone-beam CT (CBCT). Four model observers were considered in the calculation of d': prewhitening (PW), non-prewhitening (NPW), prewhitening with eye filter and internal noise (PWE), and non-prewhitening with eye filter and internal noise (NPWE). Human observer performance was measured from 9AFC tests for a variety of idealized imaging tasks presented within a clutter phantom. Theoretical results (d') were converted to area under the ROC curve (Az) and compared directly to human observer performance as a function of imaging task and orbital extent. Results: Theoretical results demonstrated reasonable correspondence with human observer response for all tasks across the continuum in θtot ranging from low-angle tomosynthesis (θtot ~10o) to CBCT (θtot ~180o). Both theoretical and experimental Az were found to increase with acquisition angle, consistent with increased rejection of out-of-plane clutter for larger tomosynthesis angle. Of the four theoretical model observers considered, the prewhitening models tended to overestimate real observer performance, while the non-prewhitening models demonstrated reasonable agreement. Conclusions: Generalized detectability index was shown to provide a meaningful metric for imaging performance, helping to bridge the gap between real observer performance and prevalent Fourier-based metrics based in first principles of spatial-frequency-dependent NEQ and imaging task.

Paper Details

Date Published: 22 March 2010
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 7622, Medical Imaging 2010: Physics of Medical Imaging, 76220Y (22 March 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.845462
Show Author Affiliations
G. J. Gang, Univ. of Toronto (Canada)
J. Lee, The Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
J. W. Stayman, The Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
D. J. Tward, The Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
W. Zbijewski, The Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
J. L. Prince, The Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
J. H. Siewerdsen, Univ. of Toronto (United States)
The Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7622:
Medical Imaging 2010: Physics of Medical Imaging
Ehsan Samei; Norbert J. Pelc, Editor(s)

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