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Proceedings Paper

A century of sapphire crystal growth: origin of the EFG method
Author(s): Daniel C. Harris
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Paper Abstract

A. Verneuil developed flame fusion to grow sapphire and ruby on a commercial scale around 1890. Flame fusion was further perfected by Popov in the Soviet Union in the 1930s and by Linde Air Products Co. in the U.S. during World War II. Union Carbide Corp., the successor to Linde, developed Czochralski crystal growth for sapphire laser materials in the 1960s. Edge-Defined Film-Fed Growth (EFG) was invented by H. Labelle in the 1960s and the Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) was invented by F. Schmid and D. Viechnicki in 1967. Both methods were commercialized in the 1970s. Gradient solidification was invented in Israel in the 1970s by J. Makovsky. The Horizontal Directional Solidification Method (HDSM) was invented by Kh. S. Bagdasorov in the Soviet Union in the 1960s. Kyropoulos growth of sapphire, known as GOI crystal growth in the Soviet Union, was developed by M. Musatov at the State Optical Institute in St. Petersburg in the 1970s. Today, half of the world's sapphire is produced by the GOI method.

Paper Details

Date Published: 21 August 2009
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 7425, Optical Materials and Structures Technologies IV, 74250P (21 August 2009); doi: 10.1117/12.824452
Show Author Affiliations
Daniel C. Harris, Naval Air Systems Command (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7425:
Optical Materials and Structures Technologies IV
Joseph L. Robichaud; William A. Goodman, Editor(s)

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