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Proceedings Paper

InP-based Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays for three-dimensional imaging at 1.06 um
Author(s): Mark A. Itzler; Mark Entwistle; Mark Owens; Xudong Jiang; Ketan M. Patel; Krystyna Slomkowski; Tim Koch; Sabbir Rangwala; Peter F. Zalud; Young Yu; John Tower; Joseph Ferraro
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Paper Abstract

We report on the development of 32 x 32 focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on InGaAsP/InP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs) designed for use in three-dimensional (3-D) laser radar imaging systems at 1064 nm. To our knowledge, this is the first realization of FPAs for 3-D imaging that employ a planar-passivated buried-junction InP-based GmAPD device platform. This development also included the design and fabrication of custom readout integrate circuits (ROICs) to perform avalanche detection and time-of-flight measurements on a per-pixel basis. We demonstrate photodiode arrays (PDAs) with a very narrow breakdown voltage distribution width of 0.34 V, corresponding to a breakdown voltage total variation of less than +/- 0.2%. At an excess bias voltage of 3.3 V, which provides 40% pixel-level single photon detection efficiency, we achieve average dark count rates of 2 kHz at an operating temperature of 248 K. We present the characterization of optical crosstalk induced by hot carrier luminescence during avalanche events, where we show that the worst-case crosstalk probability per pixel, which occurs for nearest neighbors, has a value of less than 1.6% and exhibits anisotropy due to isolation trench etch geometry. To demonstrate the FPA response to optical density variations, we show a simple image of a broadened optical beam.

Paper Details

Date Published: 29 April 2009
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 7320, Advanced Photon Counting Techniques III, 73200O (29 April 2009); doi: 10.1117/12.820564
Show Author Affiliations
Mark A. Itzler, Princeton Lightwave, Inc. (United States)
Mark Entwistle, Princeton Lightwave, Inc. (United States)
Mark Owens, Princeton Lightwave, Inc. (United States)
Xudong Jiang, Princeton Lightwave, Inc. (United States)
Ketan M. Patel, Princeton Lightwave, Inc. (United States)
Krystyna Slomkowski, Princeton Lightwave, Inc. (United States)
Tim Koch, Princeton Lightwave, Inc. (United States)
Sabbir Rangwala, Princeton Lightwave, Inc. (United States)
Peter F. Zalud, Sarnoff Corp. (United States)
Young Yu, Sarnoff Corp. (United States)
John Tower, Sarnoff Corp. (United States)
Joseph Ferraro, Sarnoff Corp. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7320:
Advanced Photon Counting Techniques III
Mark A. Itzler; Joe C. Campbell, Editor(s)

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