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Proceedings Paper

Differentiating pediatric epileptic brain tissue from normal brain tissue by using time-dependent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: comprehensive data analysis method in the time domain
Author(s): Sanghoon Oh; Bradley Fernald; Sanjiv Bhatia; John Ragheb; David Sandberg; Mahlon Johnson; Wei-Chiang Lin
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Paper Abstract

This research investigated the feasibility of using time-dependent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to differentiate pediatric epileptic brain tissue from normal brain tissue. The optical spectroscopic technique monitored the dynamic optical properties of the cerebral cortex that are associated with its physiological, morphological, and compositional characteristics. Due to the transient irregular epileptic discharge activity within the epileptic brain tissue it was hypothesized that the lesion would express abnormal dynamic optical behavior that would alter normal dynamic behavior. Thirteen pediatric epilepsy patients and seven pediatric brain tumor patients (normal controls) were recruited for this clinical study. Dynamic optical properties were obtained from the cortical surface intraoperatively using a timedependent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy system. This system consisted of a fiber-optic probe, a tungsten-halogen light source, and a spectrophotometer. It acquired diffuse reflectance spectra with a spectral range of 204 nm to 932 nm at a rate of 33 spectra per second for approximately 12 seconds. Biopsy samples were taken from electrophysiologically abnormal cortex and evaluated by a neuropathologist, which served as a gold standard for lesion classification. For data analysis, spectral intensity changes of diffuse reflectance in the time domain at two different wavelengths from each investigated site were compared. Negative correlation segment, defined by the periods where the intensity changes at the two wavelengths were opposite in their slope polarity, were extracted. The total duration of negative correlation, referred to as the "negative correlation time index", was calculated by integrating the negative correlation segments. The negative correlation time indices from all investigated sites were sub-grouped according to the corresponding histological classifications. The difference between the mean indices of two subgroups was evaluated by standard t-test. These comparison and calculation procedures were carried out for all possible wavelength combinations between 400 nm and 800 nm with 2 nm increments. The positive group consisted of seven pathologically abnormal test sites, and the negative group consisted of 13 normal test sites from non-epileptic tumor patients. A standard t-test showed significant difference between negative correlation time indices from the two groups at the wavelength combinations of 700-760 nm versus 550-580 nm. An empirical discrimination algorithm based on the negative correlation time indices in this range produced 100% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Based on these results time-dependent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with optimized data analysis methods differentiates epileptic brain tissue from normal brain tissue adequately, therefore can be utilized for surgical guidance, and may enhance the surgical outcome of pediatric epilepsy surgery.

Paper Details

Date Published: 24 April 2009
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 7313, Smart Biomedical and Physiological Sensor Technology VI, 73130M (24 April 2009); doi: 10.1117/12.818767
Show Author Affiliations
Sanghoon Oh, Miami Children's Hospital (United States)
Florida International Univ. (United States)
Bradley Fernald, Florida International Univ. (United States)
Sanjiv Bhatia, Miami Children's Hospital (United States)
Univ. of Miami (United States)
John Ragheb, Miami Children's Hospital (United States)
Univ. of Miami (United States)
David Sandberg, Miami Children's Hospital (United States)
Univ. of Miami (United States)
Mahlon Johnson, Univ. of Rochester Medical Ctr. (United States)
Wei-Chiang Lin, Miami Children's Hospital (United States)
Florida International Univ. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7313:
Smart Biomedical and Physiological Sensor Technology VI
Brian M. Cullum; D. Marshall Porterfield, Editor(s)

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