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Proceedings Paper

Aryl sulfonates as neutral photoacid generators (PAGs) for EUV lithography
Author(s): Robert Sulc; James M. Blackwell; Todd R. Younkin; E. Steve Putna; Katherine Esswein; Antonio G. DiPasquale; Ryan Callahan; Hideaki Tsubaki; Tooru Tsuchihashi
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Paper Abstract

EUV lithography (EUVL) is a leading candidate for printing sub-32 nm hp patterns. In order for EUVL to be commercially viable at these dimensions, a continuous evolution of the photoresist material set is required to simultaneously meet the aggressive specifications for resolution, resist sensitivity, LWR, and outgassing rate. Alternative PAG designs, especially if tailored for EUVL, may aid in the formation of a material set that helps achieve these aggressive targets. We describe the preparation, characterization, and lithographic evaluation of aryl sulfonates as non-ionic or neutral photoacid generators (PAGs) for EUVL. Full lithographic characterization is reported for our first generation resist formulation using compound H, MAP-1H-2.5. It is benchmarked against MAP-1P-5.0, which contains the well-known sulfonium PAG, triphenylsulfonium triflate (compound P). Z-factor analysis indicates nZ32 = 81.4 and 16.8 respectively, indicating that our first generation aryl sulfonate formulations require about 4.8x improvement to match the results achieved with a model onium PAG. Improving the acid generation efficiency and use of the generated byproducts is key to the continued optimization of this class of PAGs. To that end, we believe EI-MS fragmentation patterns and molecular simulations can be used to understand and optimize the nature and efficiency of electron-induced PAG fragmentation.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 April 2009
PDF: 13 pages
Proc. SPIE 7273, Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXVI, 72733R (1 April 2009); doi: 10.1117/12.814279
Show Author Affiliations
Robert Sulc, LBNL Molecular Foundry (United States)
James M. Blackwell, LBNL Molecular Foundry (United States)
Intel Corp. (United States)
Todd R. Younkin, Intel Corp. (United States)
E. Steve Putna, Intel Corp. (United States)
Katherine Esswein, Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)
Antonio G. DiPasquale, Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)
Ryan Callahan, FUJIFILM Electronic Materials U.S.A., Inc. (United States)
Hideaki Tsubaki, FUJIFILM Corp. (Japan)
Tooru Tsuchihashi, FUJIFILM Corp. (Japan)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7273:
Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXVI
Clifford L. Henderson, Editor(s)

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