Share Email Print
cover

Proceedings Paper

Feature reduction and payload location with WAM steganalysis
Author(s): Andrew D. Ker; Ivans Lubenko
Format Member Price Non-Member Price
PDF $14.40 $18.00
cover GOOD NEWS! Your organization subscribes to the SPIE Digital Library. You may be able to download this paper for free. Check Access

Paper Abstract

WAM steganalysis is a feature-based classifier for detecting LSB matching steganography, presented in 2006 by Goljan et al. and demonstrated to be sensitive even to small payloads. This paper makes three contributions to the development of the WAM method. First, we benchmark some variants of WAM in a number of sets of cover images, and we are able to quantify the significance of differences in results between different machine learning algorithms based on WAM features. It turns out that, like many of its competitors, WAM is not effective in certain types of cover, and furthermore it is hard to predict which types of cover are suitable for WAM steganalysis. Second, we demonstrate that only a few the features used in WAM steganalysis do almost all of the work, so that a simplified WAM steganalyser can be constructed in exchange for a little less detection power. Finally, we demonstrate how the WAM method can be extended to provide forensic tools to identify the location (and potentially content) of LSB matching payload, given a number of stego images with payload placed in the same locations. Although easily evaded, this is a plausible situation if the same stego key is mistakenly re-used for embedding in multiple images.

Paper Details

Date Published: 4 February 2009
PDF: 13 pages
Proc. SPIE 7254, Media Forensics and Security, 72540A (4 February 2009); doi: 10.1117/12.805910
Show Author Affiliations
Andrew D. Ker, Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom)
Ivans Lubenko, Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7254:
Media Forensics and Security
Edward J. Delp; Jana Dittmann; Nasir D. Memon; Ping Wah Wong, Editor(s)

© SPIE. Terms of Use
Back to Top