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Proceedings Paper

Exceeding the diffraction limit with single-photon photopolymerization and photo-induced termination
Author(s): Benjamin A. Kowalski; Timothy F. Scott; Christopher N. Bowman; Amy C. Sullivan; Robert R. McLeod
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Paper Abstract

The fabrication of 3D microstructures has been realized by numerous researchers using two-photon polymerization. The premise of these studies is that the confinement provided by localized, two-photon absorption results in polymerization only near the focal point of the focused write beam and unwanted polymerization due to superposition of the out-offocus exposures is significantly reduced, enabling the fabrication of complex structures with features below the diffraction limit. However, the low cross-section of two-photon absorbers typically requires excitation by pulsed Ti:Sapphire laser at 800 nm, resulting in polymerized features that are actually larger than those created by one-photon absorption at half the wavelength. Here we describe a single photon photolithographic technique capable of producing features not limited by the physics of diffraction by utilizing a resin which is able to be simultaneously photoinitiated using one wavelength of light and photoinhibited using a second wavelength. Appropriate overlapping of these two wavelengths produces feature sizes smaller than the diffraction limit and reduces polymerization in the out-of-focus regions while avoiding the high light intensities demanded by multi-photon initiation. Additionally, because the photoinhibiting species are non-propagating radicals which recombine when the irradiation is ceased, memory effects typical of photochromic initiators are avoided, allowing rapid and arbitrary patterning.

Paper Details

Date Published: 3 September 2008
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 7053, Organic 3D Photonics Materials and Devices II, 70530E (3 September 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.796978
Show Author Affiliations
Benjamin A. Kowalski, Univ. of Colorado at Boulder (United States)
Timothy F. Scott, Univ. of Colorado at Boulder (United States)
Christopher N. Bowman, Univ. of Colorado at Boulder (United States)
Amy C. Sullivan, Univ. of Colorado at Boulder (United States)
Robert R. McLeod, Univ. of Colorado at Boulder (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7053:
Organic 3D Photonics Materials and Devices II
Susanna Orlic, Editor(s)

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