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Proceedings Paper

Fabrication and performance of blazed transmission gratings for x-ray astronomy
Author(s): Ralf K. Heilmann; Minseung Ahn; Mark L. Schattenburg
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Paper Abstract

We have developed a new type of soft x-ray diffraction grating. This critical-angle transmission (CAT) grating combines the advantages of traditional transmission gratings (low mass, extremely relaxed alignment and flatness tolerances) with those of x-ray reflection gratings (high efficiency due to blazing in the direction of grazing-incidence reflection, increased resolution due to the use of higher diffraction orders). In addition, grating spectrometers based on CAT gratings are well-suited for co-existence with high-energy focal plane microcalorimeter detectors as planned for the Constellation-X mission, since most high-energy x rays are neither absorbed nor deflected, and arrive at the telescope focus. We describe the CAT grating principle and design, and fabrication and x-ray diffraction efficiency results for a CAT grating with 1742 lines/mm. We have observed up to 46% diffraction efficiency in a single order, and up to 55% at blaze at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths. We present our recent fabrication and soft x-ray diffraction results for 200 nm-period (5000 lines/mm) gratings.

Paper Details

Date Published: 14 July 2008
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 7011, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2008: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray, 701106 (14 July 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.789176
Show Author Affiliations
Ralf K. Heilmann, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
Minseung Ahn, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
Mark L. Schattenburg, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7011:
Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2008: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray
Martin J. L. Turner; Kathryn A. Flanagan, Editor(s)

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