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Proceedings Paper

Development of an operational high refractive index resist for 193nm immersion lithography
Author(s): Paul A. Zimmerman; Jeffrey Byers; Emil Piscani; Bryan Rice; Christopher K. Ober; Emmanuel P. Giannelis; Robert Rodriguez; Dongyan Wang; Andrew Whittaker; Idriss Blakey; Lan Chen; Bronwin Dargaville; Heping Liu
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Paper Abstract

Generation-three (Gen-3) immersion lithography offers the promise of enabling the 32nm half-pitch node. For Gen-3 lithography to be successful, however, there must be major breakthroughs in materials development: The hope of obtaining numerical aperture imaging ≥ 1.70 is dependent on a high index lens, fluid, and resist. Assuming that a fluid and a lens will be identified, this paper focuses on a possible path to a high index resist. Simulations have shown that the index of the resist should be ≥ 1.9 with any index higher than 1.9 leading to an increased process latitude. Creation of a high index resist from conventional chemistry has been shown to be unrealistic. The answer may be to introduce a high index, polarizable material into a resist that is inert relative to the polymer behavior, but will this too degrade the performance of the overall system? The specific approach is to add very high index (~2.9) nanoparticles to an existing resist system. These nanoparticles have a low absorbance; consequently the imaging of conventional 193nm resists does not degrade. Further, the nanoparticles are on the order of 3nm in diameter, thus minimizing any impact on line edge roughness (LER).

Paper Details

Date Published: 15 April 2008
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 6923, Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXV, 692306 (15 April 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.772871
Show Author Affiliations
Paul A. Zimmerman, SEMATECH (United States)
Jeffrey Byers, SEMATECH (United States)
Emil Piscani, SEMATECH (United States)
Bryan Rice, SEMATECH (United States)
Christopher K. Ober, Cornell Univ. (United States)
Emmanuel P. Giannelis, Cornell Univ. (United States)
Robert Rodriguez, Cornell Univ. (United States)
Dongyan Wang, Cornell Univ. (United States)
Andrew Whittaker, Univ. of Queensland (Australia)
Idriss Blakey, Univ. of Queensland (Australia)
Lan Chen, Univ. of Queensland (Australia)
Bronwin Dargaville, Univ. of Queensland (Australia)
Heping Liu, Univ. of Queensland (Australia)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6923:
Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXV
Clifford L. Henderson, Editor(s)

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