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Proceedings Paper

Image contrast contributions to immersion lithography defect formation and process yield
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Paper Abstract

As the industry extends immersion lithography to the 32 nm node, the limits of image and resist contrast will be challenged. Image contrast is limited by the inherent numerical aperture of a water based immersion lithography system. Elements of resist design and processing can further degrade the final deprotected image contrast1,2. Studies have been done to understand the effects of image contrast on line width roughness (LER) for dry 193 nm lithography3. This paper focuses on the impacts of image and resist contrast on the formation of defects and LER in an immersion lithography process. Optical and resist simulations are combined with experiments to better understand the relationship between image quality, resist design, scanner/track processing and defect formation. The goal of this work is to develop a relationship between resist contrast metrics and defect formation for immersion processes.

Paper Details

Date Published: 7 March 2008
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 6924, Optical Microlithography XXI, 69244W (7 March 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.772728
Show Author Affiliations
Ben Rathsack, Tokyo Electron America, Inc. (United States)
Josh Hooge, Tokyo Electron America, Inc. (United States)
Steven Scheer, Tokyo Electron America, Inc. (United States)
Kathleen Nafus, Tokyo Electron Kyushu, Ltd. (Japan)
Shinichi Hatakeyama, Tokyo Electron Kyushu, Ltd. (Japan)
Hontake Kouichi, Tokyo Electron Kyushu, Ltd. (Japan)
Junichi Kitano, Tokyo Electron Kyushu, Ltd. (Japan)
Dieter Van Den Heuval, IMEC (Belgium)
Philippe Leray, IMEC (Belgium)
Eric Hendrickx, IMEC (Belgium)
Phillipe Foubert, IMEC (Belgium)
Roel Gronheid, IMEC (Belgium)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6924:
Optical Microlithography XXI
Harry J. Levinson; Mircea V. Dusa, Editor(s)

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