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Proceedings Paper

The solid state x-ray image intensifier (SSXII): an EMCCD-based x-ray detector
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Paper Abstract

The solid-state x-ray image intensifier (SSXII) is an EMCCD-based x-ray detector designed to satisfy an increasing need for high-resolution real-time images, while offering significant improvements over current flat panel detectors (FPDs) and x-ray image intensifiers (XIIs). FPDs are replacing XIIs because they reduce/eliminate veiling glare, pincushion or s-shaped distortions and are physically flat. However, FPDs suffer from excessive lag and ghosting and their performance has been disappointing for low-exposure-per-frame procedures due to excessive instrumentation-noise. XIIs and FPDs both have limited resolution capabilities of ~3 cycles/mm. To overcome these limitations a prototype SSXII module has been developed, consisting of a 1k x 1k, 8 μm pixel EMCCD with a fiber-optic input window, which views a 350 μm thick CsI(Tl) phosphor via a 4:1 magnifying fiber-optic-taper (FOT). Arrays of such modules will provide a larger field-of- view. Detector MTF, DQE, and instrumentation-noise equivalent exposure (INEE) were measured to evaluate the SSXIIs performance using a standard x-ray spectrum (IEC RQA5), allowing for comparison with current state-of-the-art detectors. The MTF was 0.20 at 3 cycles/mm, comparable to standard detectors, and better than 0.05 up to 7 cycles/mm, well beyond current capabilities. DQE curves indicate no degradation from high-angiographic to low-fluoroscopic exposures (< 2% deviation in overall DQE from 1.3 mR to 2.7 μR), demonstrating negligible instrumentation-noise, even with low input signal intensities. An INEE of < 0.2 μR was measured for the highest-resolution mode (32 μm effective pixel size). Comparison images between detector technologies qualitatively demonstrate these improved imaging capabilities provided by the SSXII.

Paper Details

Date Published: 25 March 2008
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 6913, Medical Imaging 2008: Physics of Medical Imaging, 69130K (25 March 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.772724
Show Author Affiliations
Andrew Kuhls-Gilcrist, Univ. at Buffalo, SUNY (United States)
Girijesh Yadava, Univ. at Buffalo, SUNY (United States)
Vikas Patel, Univ. at Buffalo, SUNY (United States)
Amit Jain, Univ. at Buffalo, SUNY (United States)
Daniel R. Bednarek, Univ. at Buffalo, SUNY (United States)
Stephen Rudin, Univ. at Buffalo, SUNY (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6913:
Medical Imaging 2008: Physics of Medical Imaging
Jiang Hsieh; Ehsan Samei, Editor(s)

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