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Nested object watermarking: transparency and capacity evaluation
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Paper Abstract

Annotation watermarking (also called caption or illustration watermarking) is a specific application of image watermarking, where supplementary information is embedded directly in the media, linking it to media content, whereby it is not get separated from the media by non-malicious processing steps like image cropping or non-lossy compression. Nested object annotation watermarking (NOAWM) was recently introduced as a specialization within annotation watermarking, for embedding hierarchical object relations in photographic images. In earlier work, several techniques for NOAWM have been suggested and have shown some domain-specific problems with respect to transparency (i.e. preciseness of annotation regions) and robustness (i.e. synchronization problems due to high density, multiple watermarking), which is addressed in this paper. A first contribution of this paper is therefore proposed a theoretical framework to characterize requirements and properties of previous art and suggest a classification of known NOAWM schemes. The second aspect is the study of one specific transparency aspect, the preciseness of the spatial annotations preserved by NOAWM schemes, based on a new area-based quality measurement. Finally, the synchronization problems reported from earlier works is addressed. One possible solution is to use content-specific features of the image to support synchronization. We discuss various theoretical approaches based on for example visual hashes and image contouring and present experimental results.

Paper Details

Date Published: 18 March 2008
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 6819, Security, Forensics, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents X, 681918 (18 March 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.766370
Show Author Affiliations
Claus Vielhauer, Univ. of Magdeburg (Germany)
Maik Schott, Univ. of Magdeburg (Germany)
Christian Krätzer, Univ. of Magdeburg (Germany)
Jana Dittmann, Univ. of Magdeburg (Germany)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6819:
Security, Forensics, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents X
Edward J. Delp; Ping Wah Wong; Jana Dittmann; Nasir D. Memon, Editor(s)

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