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Proceedings Paper

Development of a prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X hard x-ray telescope
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Paper Abstract

The Constellation-X mission concept has been streamlined to a single Atlas V 551 configuration. This decision was reached by the project team after considering the increases in launch costs announced in 2006 coupled with the constrained budget environment apparent with the release of the NASA 2007 budget. Along with the Spectroscopy X-ray Telescopes, this new configuration continues to carry a Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) component, with some modifications to the original requirements to adjust to the new configuration. The total effective area requirement in the 7 - 40 keV band has been reduced, but at the same time the angular resolution requirement has been increased from 1 arcmin to 30 arcsec. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Marshall Space Flight Center and Brera Observatory (Italy) have been collaborating to develop and HXT which meets the requirements of Constellation-X. The development work we have been engaged in to produce multilayer coated Electroformed-Nickel-Replicate (ENR) shells is well suited for this new configuration. We report here on results of fabrication and testing of a prototyped optic for the HXT. Full beam illumination X-ray tests, taken at MPE-Panter Test Facility, show that these optics meet the new requirement of 30 arcsec for the streamlined Constellation-X configuration. This report also presents preliminary results from studies using titanium nitride as a release agent to simplify and improve the nickel electroforming replication process.

Paper Details

Date Published: 3 October 2007
PDF: 6 pages
Proc. SPIE 6688, Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy III, 668804 (3 October 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.736063
Show Author Affiliations
S. Romaine, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
S. Basso, Istituto Nazionale di AstroFisica (Italy)
R. J. Bruni, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
W. Burkert, Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (Germany)
O. Citterio, Istituto Nazionale di AstroFisica (Italy)
V. Cotroneo, Istituto Nazionale di AstroFisica (Italy)
D. Engelhaupt, The Univ. of Alabama in Huntsville (United States)
M. J. Freyberg, Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (Germany)
P. Gorenstein, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
M. Gubarev, Universities Space Research Association (United States)
G. Hartner, Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (Germany)
F. Mazzoleni, Istituto Nazionale di AstroFisica (Italy)
S. O'Dell, NASA Marshall Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
G. Pareschi, Istituto Nazionale di AstroFisica (Italy)
B. D. Ramsey, NASA Marshall Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
C. Speegle, Raytheon-ITSS (United States)
D. Spiga, Istituto Nazionale di AstroFisica (Italy)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6688:
Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy III
Stephen L. O'Dell; Giovanni Pareschi, Editor(s)

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