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Proceedings Paper

Rigorous modeling of dielectric and metallic blaze gratings in the intermediate structure regime
Author(s): Oliver Sandfuchs; Alexander Pesch; Robert Brunner
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Paper Abstract

The performance predictions and optimization of blazed diffraction gratings are key issues for their application in hybrid optical systems, both in the case of imaging and analyzing systems. Scalar and vectorial theories are often used for a first performance estimation whenever applicable. However, in the intermediate structure regime, characterized by a grating period within the transition from the validity of the scalar to the fully electromagnetic theory, rigorous numerical simulations are inevitable for accurate modeling of blaze structures with sawtooth-shaped profiles. A variety of electromagnetic algorithms exists to determine the diffraction efficiency, such as integral equation methods, finite element methods or rigorous coupled-wave analyses. An effect known as shadowing occurs and has a significant influence on the diffraction efficiency of the blazed grating. A simple but accurate model describing the shadowing phenomena would be of enormous practical importance for the optical design of hybrid systems. Commonly, dielectric transmission gratings are regarded, when the efficiency behavior due to shadowing is discussed. We succeeded in filling the modeling gap in the intermediate structure regime and have derived a rigorous-based semi-analytical model for dielectric gratings. We are able to extend this model to the case of metallic reflection gratings. For both types of gratings, we find that the blaze efficiency obeys a linear dependence on the ratio of blaze wavelength to grating period, which dominates the performance in the first diffraction order. We define the linear coefficient of shadowing strength and discuss its dependence on the material properties.

Paper Details

Date Published: 14 September 2007
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 6675, Optical Modeling and Performance Predictions III, 66750I (14 September 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.731997
Show Author Affiliations
Oliver Sandfuchs, Carl Zeiss AG (Germany)
Alexander Pesch, Carl Zeiss AG (Germany)
Robert Brunner, Carl Zeiss AG (Germany)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6675:
Optical Modeling and Performance Predictions III
Mark A. Kahan, Editor(s)

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