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Proceedings Paper

Critical comparison of metrology techniques for MEMS
Author(s): Mark G. da Silva; Siebe Bouwstra
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Paper Abstract

MEMS Technology has become more ubiquitous in recent years but still metrology for MEMS materials has lagged in terms of standardization and common industry usage. MEMS metrology encompasses a very wide range of test methods for various kinds of functional and manufacturing characteristics of these devices but in this article we only refer to test techniques for extraction of mechanical properties essential to the product development process and process monitoring. These include methods such as test structures and other methods for measuring elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, residual stress and stress gradients, and CTE, etc. as well as properties important to device reliability such as creep, fatigue and wear. Metrology for MEMS materials has always included attempts by researchers and engineers to miniaturize existing macro level test methods like the uniaxial tensile test, hardness test, bulge test etc. but historically another approach has always existed in parallel. Novel on-wafer or on-chip test structures are continuously being developed in an attempt to achieve stream-lined in-line tests that don't require the "destructive" nature of the former group of test methods. The vision is that in-line methods would eventually be standardized to the point where they, in the mask layout phase, could be "dropped onto" wafer as in-line process control monitors (PCMs). Today, we're still far away from realizing this ideal situation in the sense that the ASTM standards list does not include a single unique test structure for material property extraction. The focus of this current article is to critically compare the various techniques that have been developed so far and contrast their viability and potential as candidates for standardization either in-line or off-line.

Paper Details

Date Published: 19 January 2007
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 6463, Reliability, Packaging, Testing, and Characterization of MEMS/MOEMS VI, 64630C (19 January 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.714852
Show Author Affiliations
Mark G. da Silva, Exponent Inc. (United States)
Siebe Bouwstra, MEMS TC (Netherlands)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6463:
Reliability, Packaging, Testing, and Characterization of MEMS/MOEMS VI
Allyson L. Hartzell; Rajeshuni Ramesham, Editor(s)

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