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Proceedings Paper

Progress in electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD) based high-resolution high-sensitivity x-ray detector for fluoroscopy and radiography
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Paper Abstract

A new high-resolution, high-sensitivity, low-noise x-ray detector based on EMCCDs has been developed. The EMCCD detector module consists of a 1kx1k, 8μm pixel EMCCD camera coupled to a CsI(Tl) scintillating phosphor via a fiber optic taper (FOT). Multiple modules can be used to provide the desired field-of-view (FOV). The detector is capable of acquisitions over 30fps. The EMCCD's variable gain of up to 2000x for the pixel signal enables high sensitivity for fluoroscopic applications. With a 3:1 FOT, the detector can operate with a 144μm effective pixel size, comparable to current flat-panel detectors. Higher resolutions of 96 and 48μm pixel size can also be achieved with various binning modes. The detector MTFs and DQEs were calculated using a linear-systems analysis. The zero frequency DQE was calculated to be 59% at 74 kVp. The DQE for the 144μm pixel size was shown to exhibit quantum-noise limited behavior down to ~0.1μR using a conservative 30x gain. At this low exposure, gains above 30x showed limited improvements in DQE suggesting such increased gains may not be necessary. For operation down to 48µm pixel sizes, the detector instrumentation noise equivalent exposure (INEE), defined as the exposure where the instrumentation noise equals the quantum-noise, was <0.1μR for a 20x gain. This new technology may provide improvements over current flat-panel detectors for applications such as fluoroscopy and angiography requiring high frame rates, resolution, dynamic range and sensitivity while maintaining essentially no lag and very low INEE. Initial images from a prototype detector are also presented.

Paper Details

Date Published: 23 March 2007
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 6510, Medical Imaging 2007: Physics of Medical Imaging, 65101C (23 March 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.713140
Show Author Affiliations
Andrew T. Kuhls, Univ. at Buffalo (United States)
Girijesh Yadava, Univ. at Buffalo (United States)
Vikas Patel, Univ. at Buffalo (United States)
Daniel R. Bednarek, Univ. at Buffalo (United States)
Stephen Rudin, Univ. at Buffalo (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6510:
Medical Imaging 2007: Physics of Medical Imaging
Jiang Hsieh; Michael J. Flynn, Editor(s)

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