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Proceedings Paper

Model-based approach for design verification and co-optimization of catastrophic and parametric-related defects due to systematic manufacturing variations
Author(s): Dan Perry; Mark Nakamoto; Nishath Verghese; Philippe Hurat; Rich Rouse
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Paper Abstract

Model-based hotspot detection and silicon-aware parametric analysis help designers optimize their chips for yield, area and performance without the high cost of applying foundries' recommended design rules. This set of DFM/ recommended rules is primarily litho-driven, but cannot guarantee a manufacturable design without imposing overly restrictive design requirements. This rule-based methodology of making design decisions based on idealized polygons that no longer represent what is on silicon needs to be replaced. Using model-based simulation of the lithography, OPC, RET and etch effects, followed by electrical evaluation of the resulting shapes, leads to a more realistic and accurate analysis. This analysis can be used to evaluate intelligent design trade-offs and identify potential failures due to systematic manufacturing defects during the design phase. The successful DFM design methodology consists of three parts: 1. Achieve a more aggressive layout through limited usage of litho-related recommended design rules. A 10% to 15% area reduction is achieved by using more aggressive design rules. DFM/recommended design rules are used only if there is no impact on cell size. 2. Identify and fix hotspots using a model-based layout printability checker. Model-based litho and etch simulation are done at the cell level to identify hotspots. Violations of recommended rules may cause additional hotspots, which are then fixed. The resulting design is ready for step 3. 3. Improve timing accuracy with a process-aware parametric analysis tool for transistors and interconnect. Contours of diffusion, poly and metal layers are used for parametric analysis. In this paper, we show the results of this physical and electrical DFM methodology at Qualcomm. We describe how Qualcomm was able to develop more aggressive cell designs that yielded a 10% to 15% area reduction using this methodology. Model-based shape simulation was employed during library development to validate architecture choices and to optimize cell layout. At the physical verification stage, the shape simulator was run at full-chip level to identify and fix residual hotspots on interconnect layers, on poly or metal 1 due to interaction between adjacent cells, or on metal 1 due to interaction between routing (via and via cover) and cell geometry. To determine an appropriate electrical DFM solution, Qualcomm developed an experiment to examine various electrical effects. After reporting the silicon results of this experiment, which showed sizeable delay variations due to lithography-related systematic effects, we also explain how contours of diffusion, poly and metal can be used for silicon-aware parametric analysis of transistors and interconnect at the cell-, block- and chip-level.

Paper Details

Date Published: 21 March 2007
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 6521, Design for Manufacturability through Design-Process Integration, 65210E (21 March 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.712471
Show Author Affiliations
Dan Perry, Qualcomm, Inc. (United States)
Mark Nakamoto, Qualcomm, Inc. (United States)
Nishath Verghese, Clear Shape Technologies (United States)
Philippe Hurat, Clear Shape Technologies (United States)
Rich Rouse, Clear Shape Technologies (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6521:
Design for Manufacturability through Design-Process Integration
Alfred K.K. Wong; Vivek K. Singh, Editor(s)

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