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Proceedings Paper

High-index immersion lithography with second-generation immersion fluids to enable numerical aperatures of 1.55 for cost effective 32-nm half pitches
Author(s): R. H. French; V. Liberman; H. V. Tran; J. Feldman; D. J. Adelman; R. C. Wheland; W. Qiu; S. J. McLain; O. Nagao; M. Kaku; M. Mocella; M. K. Yang; M. F. Lemon; L. Brubaker; A. L. Shoe; B. Fones; B. E. Fischel; K. Krohn; D. Hardy; C. Y. Chen
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Paper Abstract

To identify the most practical and cost-effective technology after water immersion lithography (Gen1) for sub-45 nm half pitches, the semiconductor industry continues to debate the relative merits of water double patterning (feasible, but high cost of ownership), EUV (difficulties with timing and infrastructure issues) and high index immersion lithography (single-exposure optical lithography, needing a suitable high index last lens element [HILLE]). With good progress on the HILLE, high index immersion with numerical apertures of 1.55 or above now seems possible. We continue our work on delivering a commercially-viable high index immersion fluid (Gen2). We have optimized several fluids to meet the required refractive index and absorbance specifications at 193 nm. We are also continuing to examine other property/process requirements relevant to commercial use, such as fluid radiation durability, last lens element contamination and cleaning, resist interactions and profile effects, and particle contamination and prevention. These studies show that both fluid handling issues, as well as active fluid recycling, must be well understood and carefully managed to maintain optimum fluid properties. Low-absorbing third generation immersion fluids, with refractive indices above 1.7 (Gen3), would further expand the resolution of singleexposure 193 nm lithography to below 32 nm half pitch.

Paper Details

Date Published: 26 March 2007
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 6520, Optical Microlithography XX, 65201O (26 March 2007); doi: 10.1117/12.712234
Show Author Affiliations
R. H. French, DuPont Co. (United States)
V. Liberman, MIT Lincoln Lab (United States)
H. V. Tran, DuPont Co. (United States)
J. Feldman, DuPont Co. (United States)
D. J. Adelman, DuPont Co. (United States)
R. C. Wheland, DuPont Co. (United States)
W. Qiu, DuPont Co. (United States)
S. J. McLain, DuPont Co. (United States)
O. Nagao, DuPont K. K. (Japan)
M. Kaku, DuPont K. K. (Japan)
M. Mocella, DuPont Co. (United States)
M. K. Yang, DuPont Co. (United States)
M. F. Lemon, DuPont Co. (United States)
L. Brubaker, DuPont Co. (United States)
A. L. Shoe, DuPont Co. (United States)
B. Fones, DuPont Co. (United States)
B. E. Fischel, DuPont Co. (United States)
K. Krohn, MIT Lincoln Lab (United States)
D. Hardy, MIT Lincoln Lab (United States)
C. Y. Chen, DuPont-EKC (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6520:
Optical Microlithography XX
Donis G. Flagello, Editor(s)

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