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Proceedings Paper

The statistical and fractal properties of surface reflectivity of raw chicken tissue with application to public health safety
Author(s): Raji Subramaniam; R. Sullivan; P. S. Schneider; A. Flamholz; E. Cheung; G. Tremberger; P. K. Wong; D. H. Lieberman; T. D. Cheung; F. Garcia; N. Bewry; A. Yee
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Paper Abstract

Images of packaged raw chicken purchased in neighborhood supermarkets were captured via a digital camera in laboratory and home settings. Each image contained the surface reflectivity information of the chicken tissue. The camera's red, green and blue light signals fluctuated and each spectral signal exhibited a random series across the surface. The Higuchi method, where the length of each increment in time (or spatial) lag is plotted against the lag, was used to explore the fractal property of the random series. (Higuchi, T., "Approach to an irregular time series on the basis of fractal theory", Physica D, vol 31, 277-283, 1988). The fractal calculation algorithm was calibrated with the Weierstrass function. The standard deviation and fractal dimension were shown to correlate with the time duration that a package was left at room temperature within a 24-hour period. Comparison to packaged beef results suggested that the time dependence could be due microbial spoilage. The fractal dimension results in this study were consistent with those obtained from yeast cell, mammalian cell and bacterial cell studies. This analysis method can be used to detect the re-refrigeration of a "left-out" package of chicken. The extension to public health issues such as consumer shopping is also discussed.

Paper Details

Date Published: 23 October 2006
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 6381, Optics for Natural Resources, Agriculture, and Foods, 63810H (23 October 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.686285
Show Author Affiliations
Raji Subramaniam, CUNY Queensborough Community College (United States)
R. Sullivan, CUNY Queensborough Community College (United States)
P. S. Schneider, CUNY Queensborough Community College (United States)
A. Flamholz, CUNY Queensborough Community College (United States)
E. Cheung, CUNY Queensborough Community College (United States)
G. Tremberger, CUNY Queensborough Community College (United States)
P. K. Wong, CUNY Queensborough Community College (United States)
D. H. Lieberman, CUNY Queensborough Community College (United States)
T. D. Cheung, CUNY Queensborough Community College (United States)
F. Garcia, CUNY Queensborough Community College (United States)
N. Bewry, CUNY Queensborough Community College (United States)
A. Yee, CUNY Queensborough Community College (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6381:
Optics for Natural Resources, Agriculture, and Foods
Yud-Ren Chen; George E. Meyer; Shu-I Tu, Editor(s)

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