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Proceedings Paper

Evaluation of response variables in computer-simulated virtual cataract surgery
Author(s): Per Söderberg; Carl-Gustaf Laurell; Wamidh Simawi; Per Nordqvist; Eva Skarman; Leif Nordh
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Paper Abstract

We have developed a virtual reality (VR) simulator for phacoemulsification (phaco) surgery. The current work aimed at evaluating the precision in the estimation of response variables identified for measurement of the performance of VR phaco surgery. We identified 31 response variables measuring; the overall procedure, the foot pedal technique, the phacoemulsification technique, erroneous manipulation, and damage to ocular structures. Totally, 8 medical or optometry students with a good knowledge of ocular anatomy and physiology but naive to cataract surgery performed three sessions each of VR Phaco surgery. For measurement, the surgical procedure was divided into a sculpting phase and an evacuation phase. The 31 response variables were measured for each phase in all three sessions. The variance components for individuals and iterations of sessions within individuals were estimated with an analysis of variance assuming a hierarchal model. The consequences of estimated variabilities for sample size requirements were determined. It was found that generally there was more variability for iterated sessions within individuals for measurements of the sculpting phase than for measurements of the evacuation phase. This resulted in larger required sample sizes for detection of difference between independent groups or change within group, for the sculpting phase as compared to for the evacuation phase. It is concluded that several of the identified response variables can be measured with sufficient precision for evaluation of VR phaco surgery.

Paper Details

Date Published: 7 March 2006
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 6138, Ophthalmic Technologies XVI, 61381B (7 March 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.663541
Show Author Affiliations
Per Söderberg, St . Erik's Eye Hospital (Sweden)
Univ. of Miami (United States)
Mälarsjukhuset Eskilstuna (Sweden)
Carl-Gustaf Laurell, St. Erik's Eye Hospital (Sweden)
Wamidh Simawi, St. Erik's Eye Hospital (Sweden)
Mälarsjukhuset Eskilstuna (Sweden)
Per Nordqvist, Melerit AB (Sweden)
Eva Skarman, Melerit AB (Sweden)
Leif Nordh, Melerit AB (Sweden)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6138:
Ophthalmic Technologies XVI
Fabrice Manns; Per G. Söderberg; Arthur Ho, Editor(s)

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