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Proceedings Paper

Analysis of the temporal effects on grating evolution in photopolymer
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Paper Abstract

The nonlocal polymerization driven diffusion model is used to describe holographic grating formation in acrylamidebased photopolymer. The free radical chain polymerization process results in polymer being generated nonlocal both in space and time to the point of chain initiation. A Gaussian spatial material response function and an exponential temporal material response function are used to account for these effects. In this paper we firstly examine the nature of the temporal evolution of grating formation for short recording periods. It is shown that in this case, temporal effects become most notable and the inclusion of the nonlocal temporal response function is shown to be necessary to accurately describe the process. In particular, brief post exposure selfamplification of the refractive index modulation is noted. This is attributed to continued chain growth for a brief period after exposure. Following this a slight decay in the grating amplitude also occurs. This we believe is due to the continued diffusion of monomer after exposure. Since the sinusoidal recording pattern generates a monomer concentration gradient during the recording process monomer diffusion occurs both during and after exposure. The evolution of the refractive index modulation is determined by the respective refractive index values of the recording material components. From independent measurements it is noted that the refractive index value of the monomer is slightly less than that of the background material. Therefore as monomer diffuses back into the dark regions, a reduction in overall refractive index modulation occurs. Volume changes occurring within the material also affect the nature of grating evolution. To model these effects we employ a free volume concept. Due to the fact that the covalent single carbon bond in the polymer is up to 50% shorter than the van der Waals bond in the liquid monomer state, free volume is created when monomer is converted to polymer. For each bond conversion we assume a hole is generated which then collapses at some characteristic rate constant. Incorporating each of these effects into our model, the model is then solved using a Finite-Difference Time- Domain method (FDTD). The Lorentz-Lorenz relation is used to determine the overall evolution refractive index modulation and the corresponding diffraction efficiency of the resulting grating is calculated using Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA). Fits are then carried out to experimental data for 1 second exposures. Good quality fits are achieved and material parameters extracted. Monomer diffusion rates are determined to be of the order of D ~ 10-10 cm2/s and the time constant of the nonlocal material temporal response function being of the order of τn ~ 10-2s. Material shrinkage occurring over these recording periods is also determined.

Paper Details

Date Published: 20 April 2006
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 6187, Photon Management II, 618704 (20 April 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.663444
Show Author Affiliations
John V. Kelly, Univ. College Dublin (Ireland)
Michael R. Gleeson, Univ. College Dublin (Ireland)
Ciara E. Close, Univ. College Dublin (Ireland)
Feidhlim T. O' Neill, Univ. College Dublin (Ireland)
John T. Sheridan, Univ. College Dublin (Ireland)
Sergi Gallego, Univ. de Alicante (Spain)
Cristian Neipp, Univ. de Alicante (Spain)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6187:
Photon Management II
John T. Sheridan; Frank Wyrowski, Editor(s)

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