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Proceedings Paper

Studies of consequences of photo-acid generator leaching in 193nm immersion lithography
Author(s): V. Liberman; M. Switkes; M. Rothschild; S. T. Palmacci; A. Grenville
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Paper Abstract

Leaching of resist components into the water has been reported in several studies. Potential effects of photo-acid generator (PAG) dissolved in water include photocontamination of the last optical surface and the formation of particulate defects on the wafer surface. In order to determine the impact of these phenomena on lithographic performance, such as optics lifetime and yield, we have initiated a set of controlled studies, where predetermined amounts of PAG were introduced into pure water and the results monitored quantitatively. One set of studies identified the complex, nonlinear paths leading to photocontamination of the optics. At concentrations typical of leached PAG, below 500 ppb, the in-situ self-cleaning processes prevent contamination of the optics. On the other hand, initial experiments with a nano-dropper show that micron-scale particles from the dissolved PAG are formed on the wafer surface when water evaporates. This phenomenon requires further systematic studies both at the fundamental science and the engineering levels.

Paper Details

Date Published: 15 March 2006
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 6154, Optical Microlithography XIX, 615416 (15 March 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.659596
Show Author Affiliations
V. Liberman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
M. Switkes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
M. Rothschild, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
S. T. Palmacci, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
A. Grenville, Intel Corp. (United States)
SEMATECH (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6154:
Optical Microlithography XIX
Donis G. Flagello, Editor(s)

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