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Proceedings Paper

The next phase for immersion lithography
Author(s): Harry Sewell; Jan Mulkens; Diane McCafferty; Louis Markoya; Bob Streefkerk; Paul Graeupner
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Paper Abstract

Immersion Lithography is now the most important technique for extending optical lithography's capabilities and meeting the requirements of the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) roadmap. The introduction of water as an immersion fluid will allow optical lithography to progress as far as the 45nm (half pitch) node using ArF scanning systems such as the XT1700i. Developments are under way to explore the use of immersion lithography beyond this performance level and toward the 32nm (half pitch) node. This paper examines the progress that has been made, particularly with the use of 2nd-generation immersion fluids. The requirements of the exposure system are defined. Issues associated with achieving the requirements are reviewed and discussed. Special attention is given to clarifying the optical materials and the issues associated with extending optical designs to hyper-numerical aperture (NA) levels. A number of threshold levels for the numerical apertures are set by the refractive index of the available materials in the lithographic film stack. These are defined. The requirements of high refractive index fluids are detailed. The performance of experimental samples is compared to system requirements. Fluid interaction with photoresists and topcoats are examined. The results of stain tests and soak tests for fluid samples on resist are reported. Data is supplied on resist imaging for 32nm line and space L/S.

Paper Details

Date Published: 15 March 2006
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 6154, Optical Microlithography XIX, 615406 (15 March 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.657574
Show Author Affiliations
Harry Sewell, ASML US (United States)
Jan Mulkens, ASML Netherlands B.V. (Netherlands)
Diane McCafferty, ASML US (United States)
Louis Markoya, ASML US (United States)
Bob Streefkerk, ASML Netherlands B.V. (Netherlands)
Paul Graeupner, Zeiss-SMT (Germany)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6154:
Optical Microlithography XIX
Donis G. Flagello, Editor(s)

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