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Proceedings Paper

Analysis of 193nm immersion specific defects
Author(s): Akihiko Otoguro; Jeung-Woo Lee; Toshiro Itani; Kiyoshi Fujii; Tomohiro Funakoshi; Tsunehiro Sakai; Kenji Watanabe; Mikio Arakawa; Hitoshi Nakano; Masamichi Kobayashi
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Paper Abstract

A great deal of research effort is focused on accelerating the development of 193-nm immersion lithography because it appears to be the most suitable lithographic solution available for 65-nm-and-below semiconductor devices. To realize a 193-nm immersion process, we must find ways to detect and analyze immersion specific defects, and then establish processes that let us avoid such defects. In this paper, we examine immersion specific defects and ways to detect and eliminate them in production processes. Through comparison of dry exposure and immersion exposure processes, we have found that "bridges" and "water-marks" are the most significant immersion specific defects using current developable top-coats. Although we confirmed that the current solvent-removable top-coat process is better for avoiding immersion specific defects, we also found that the defect density with a developable top-coat was still low enough for volume production. We also investigated the causes of immersion specific defects and hypothesized that DI water permeation and the local topology of the top-coat play an important role in the generation of immersion specific defects. To test whether this was so, we evaluated the change in the top-coat film thickness by the quartz crystal microbalance technique. We confirmed that top-coat swelling caused by water permeation into the top-coat film is a major cause of immersion

Paper Details

Date Published: 11 April 2006
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 6153, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXIII, 61531P (11 April 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.656086
Show Author Affiliations
Akihiko Otoguro, Semiconductor Leading Edge Technologies, Inc. (Japan)
Jeung-Woo Lee, Semiconductor Leading Edge Technologies, Inc. (Japan)
Toshiro Itani, Semiconductor Leading Edge Technologies, Inc. (Japan)
Kiyoshi Fujii, Semiconductor Leading Edge Technologies, Inc. (Japan)
Tomohiro Funakoshi, Hitachi High-Technologies Corp. (Japan)
Tsunehiro Sakai, Hitachi High-Technologies Corp. (Japan)
Kenji Watanabe, Hitachi High-Technologies Corp. (Japan)
Mikio Arakawa, Canon Inc. (Japan)
Hitoshi Nakano, Canon Inc. (Japan)
Masamichi Kobayashi, Canon Inc. (Japan)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6153:
Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXIII
Qinghuang Lin, Editor(s)

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