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Proceedings Paper

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer enhanced luminescence (FRETEL) of Quantum Dyes
Author(s): R. C. Leif; M. C. Becker; A. Bromm; L. M. Vallarino; S. Yang
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Paper Abstract

Methods for increasing the luminescence intensity of lanthanide macrocycles, Quantum Dyes(R), by the Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Enhanced Luminescence (FRETEL) effect in the solid state have been developed. A homogeneous solution containing the europium or terbium Quantum Dye and an excess of selected energy transfer species is evaporated to dryness, resulting in a thin film that surrounds and embeds the Quantum Dye or its conjugates. Under these conditions, in the presence of the gadolinium-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate complex as the energy transfer species, the luminescence of the europium Quantum Dye increased approximately 6-fold upon drying. However, the presence of a nonemitting lanthanide such as gadolinium is not always required for this effect. In studies employing the 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate ion as the energy transfer species, where both the terbium and the europium Quantum Dyes could be simultaneously excited at 280 nm, the presence of gadolinium actually decreased the luminescence compared to that obtained with the 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate alone. The simplest explanation for the FRETEL effect is that fluorescence resonance energy transfer occurs between the photo-trapping energy transfer species, either unbound or complexed with the nonluminescent gadolinium ion. The energy being finally transferred to the luminescent lanthanide ion complexes with consequent increase in emission intensity. This new method for the enhancement of luminescence intensity in the solid state has the significant advantage of eliminating the need for the previously required aqueous emulsion, which was difficult to make and transport.

Paper Details

Date Published: 27 February 2006
PDF: 13 pages
Proc. SPIE 6092, Ultrasensitive and Single-Molecule Detection Technologies, 609206 (27 February 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.645069
Show Author Affiliations
R. C. Leif, Newport Instruments (United States)
M. C. Becker, Phoenix Flow Systems (United States)
A. Bromm, Virginia Commonwealth Univ. (United States)
L. M. Vallarino, Virginia Commonwealth Univ. (United States)
S. Yang, Newport Instruments (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6092:
Ultrasensitive and Single-Molecule Detection Technologies
Jörg Enderlein; Zygmunt K. Gryczynski, Editor(s)

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