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Proceedings Paper

Remote sensing of sea ice thickness by a combined spatial and frequency domain interferometer: formulations, instrument design, and development
Author(s): Ziad A. Hussein; Benjamin Holt; Kyle C. McDonald; Rolando Jordan; John Huang; Yasuo Kuga; Akira Ishimaru; Sermsak Jaruwatanadilok; Prasad Gogineni; Torry Akins; Brandon Heavey; Don Perovich; Matthew Sturm
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Paper Abstract

The thickness of Arctic sea ice plays a critical role in Earth's climate and ocean circulation. An accurate measurement of this parameter on synoptic scales at regular intervals would enable characterization of this important component for the understanding of ocean circulation and the global heat balance. Presented in this paper is a low frequency VHF interferometer technique and associated radar instrument design to measure sea ice thickness based on the use of backscatter correlation functions. The sea ice medium is represented as a multi-layered medium consisting of snow, sea-ice and sea water, with the interfaces between layers characterized as rough surfaces. This technique utilizes the correlation of two radar waves of different frequencies and incident and observation angles, scattered from the sea ice medium. The correlation functions relate information about the sea ice thickness. Inversion techniques such as the genetic algorithm, gradient descent, and least square methods, are used to derive sea ice thickness from the phase information related by the correlation functions. The radar instrument is designed to be implemented on a spacecraft and the initial test-bed will be on a Twin Otter aircraft. Radar system and instrument design and development parameters as well as some measurement requirements are reviewed. The ability to obtain reliable phase information for successful ice thickness retrieval for various thickness and surface interface geometries is examined.

Paper Details

Date Published: 21 October 2005
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 5978, Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites IX, 59780D (21 October 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.627973
Show Author Affiliations
Ziad A. Hussein, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Benjamin Holt, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Kyle C. McDonald, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Rolando Jordan, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
John Huang, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Yasuo Kuga, Univ. of Washington (United States)
Akira Ishimaru, Univ. of Washington (United States)
Sermsak Jaruwatanadilok, Univ. of Washington (United States)
Prasad Gogineni, Univ. of Kansas (United States)
Torry Akins, Univ. of Kansas (United States)
Brandon Heavey, Univ. of Kansas (United States)
Don Perovich, U.S. Cold Region Research and Engineering Lab. (United States)
Matthew Sturm, U.S. Army Cold Region Research and Engineering Lab. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5978:
Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites IX
Roland Meynart; Steven P. Neeck; Haruhisa Shimoda, Editor(s)

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