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Proceedings Paper

Active and passive shielding design optimization and technical solutions for deep sensitivity hard x-ray focusing telescopes
Author(s): G. Malaguti; G. Pareschi; P. Ferrando; E. Caroli; G. Di Cocco; L. Foschini; S. Basso; S. Del Sordo; F. Fiore; A. Bonati; G. Lesci; J. M. Poulsen; F. Monzani; A. Stevoli; B. Negri
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Paper Abstract

The 10-100 keV region of the electromagnetic spectrum contains the potential for a dramatic improvement in our understanding of a number of key problems in high energy astrophysics. A deep inspection of the universe in this band is on the other hand still lacking because of the demanding sensitivity (fraction of μCrab in the 20-40 keV for 1 Ms integration time) and imaging (≈ 15" angular resolution) requirements. The mission ideas currently being proposed are based on long focal length, grazing incidence, multi-layer optics, coupled with focal plane detectors with few hundreds μm spatial resolution capability. The required large focal lengths, ranging between 8 and 50 m, can be realized by means of extendable optical benches (as foreseen e.g. for the HEXITSAT, NEXT and NuSTAR missions) or formation flight scenarios (e.g. Simbol-X and XEUS). While the final telescope design will require a detailed trade-off analysis between all the relevant parameters (focal length, plate scale value, angular resolution, field of view, detector size, and sensitivity degradation due to detector dead area and telescope vignetting), extreme attention must be dedicated to the background minimization. In this respect, key issues are represented by the passive baffling system, which in case of large focal lengths requires particular design assessments, and by the active/passive shielding geometries and materials. In this work, the result of a study of the expected background for a hard X-ray telescope is presented, and its implication on the required sensitivity, together with the possible implementation design concepts for active and passive shielding in the framework of future satellite missions, are discussed.

Paper Details

Date Published: 8 September 2005
PDF: 13 pages
Proc. SPIE 5900, Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, 59000M (8 September 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.620235
Show Author Affiliations
G. Malaguti, INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica (Italy)
G. Pareschi, INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (Italy)
P. Ferrando, DSM/DAPNIA/Service d'Astrophysique, CEA/Saclay (France)
E. Caroli, INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica (Italy)
G. Di Cocco, INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica (Italy)
L. Foschini, INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica (Italy)
S. Basso, INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (Italy)
S. Del Sordo, INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica (Italy)
F. Fiore, INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (Italy)
A. Bonati, Alenia Spazio SpA LABEN (Italy)
G. Lesci, Alenia Spazio SpA LABEN (Italy)
J. M. Poulsen, Alenia Spazio SpA LABEN (Italy)
F. Monzani, Alenia Spazio SpA LABEN (Italy)
A. Stevoli, Alenia Spazio SpA LABEN (Italy)
B. Negri, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (Italy)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5900:
Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II
Oberto Citterio; Stephen L. O'Dell, Editor(s)

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