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Proceedings Paper

Identification of buried landmines using electromagnetic induction spectroscopy: evaluation of a blind test against ground truth
Author(s): Haoping Huang; Bill San Filipo; Steve Norton; I. J. Won
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Paper Abstract

The Geophex GEM-3 sensor was tested at a government test site comprised of 980 1-m squares containing buried landmines and clutter (metallic debris). Electromagnetic (EM) induction spectroscopy (EMIS) was used to discriminate between the landmines and clutter items. Receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) were constructed based on the results of the analysis. Approximately 92% of the landmines were correctly identified as such, with a false alarm rate of 12%. In this report, we present a comparison of our identification results against the ground truth. The EMIS method works well for high-metal mines for which the misfit threshold can be easily established, yielding a correct declaration in all cases without false alarms. For medium-metal mines, even though the misfit differences between the mines and clutter are not as clear as those for the high-metal mines, these mines were still identified at very low false alarm rates with the GEM-3 sensor. The low-metal mines may be discriminated from clutter if they yield reliable signals, but often at a much higher false alarm rate. The primary reason for this is that the EM signals from the low-metal mines are intrinsically weak and thus more subject to distortion by noise. There are several possibilities for improving the low-metal mine identification, including (1) increasing the upper limit of the frequency band to obtain a stronger signal and better defined spectra; (2) decreasing the size of the sensing head to further localize the region of sensitivity of the sensor; (3) displaying the spectral curves and performing the identification in real time to allow operator inspection of the spectral match; and (4) defining a generalized misfit that incorporates signal amplitude and possibly other spectral features such as the quadrature peak.

Paper Details

Date Published: 10 June 2005
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 5794, Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets X, (10 June 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.602559
Show Author Affiliations
Haoping Huang, Geophex, Ltd. (United States)
Bill San Filipo, Geophex, Ltd. (United States)
Steve Norton, Geophex, Ltd. (United States)
I. J. Won, Geophex, Ltd. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5794:
Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets X
Russell S. Harmon; J. Thomas Broach; John H. Holloway, Editor(s)

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