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Proceedings Paper

Understanding the photoresist surface-liquid interface for ArF immersion lithography
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Paper Abstract

Extraction of small molecule components into water from photoresist materials designed for 193 nm immersion lithography has been observed. Leaching of photoacid generator (PAG) has been monitored using three techniques: liquid scintillation counting (LSC); liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS); and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). LSC was also used to detect leaching of residual casting solvent (RCS) and base. The amount of PAG leaching from the resist films, 30 - 50 ng/cm2, was quantified using LSC. Both LSC and LCMS results suggest that PAG and photoacid leach from the film only upon initial contact with water (within 10 seconds) and minimal leaching occurs thereafter for immersion times up to 30 minutes. Exposed films show an increase in the amount of photoacid anion leaching by upwards of 20% relative to unexposed films. Films pre-rinsed with water for 30 seconds showed no further PAG leaching as determined by LSC. No statistically significant amount of residual casting solvent was extracted after 30 minutes of immersion. Base extraction was quantified at 2 ng/cm2 after 30 seconds. The leaching process is qualitatively described by a model based on the stratigraphy of resist films.

Paper Details

Date Published: 4 May 2005
PDF: 14 pages
Proc. SPIE 5753, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, (4 May 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.601482
Show Author Affiliations
Will Conley, Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. (United States)
SEMATECH, Inc. (United States)
Robert J. LeSuer, Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States)
Frank F. Fan, Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States)
Allen J. Bard, Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States)
Chris Taylor, Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States)
Pavlos Tsiartas, Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States)
Grant Willson, Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States)
Andrew Romano, AZ Electronic Materials (United States)
Ralph Dammel, AZ Electronic Materials (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5753:
Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII
John L. Sturtevant, Editor(s)

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