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Proceedings Paper

Lithographic performance and dissolution behavior of novolac resins for various developer surfactant systems
Author(s): Gary E. Flores; James E. Loftus
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Paper Abstract

The use of surfactants in today's society ranges over a wide variety of technologies, from soaps and detergents to house paints and electronic materials. In the semiconductor industry, surfactants are commonly used as coating additives in photoresists, as additives in wet chemical etchants, as additives in developer solutions, and in other areas where surface activity is desirable. In most applications, the mechanisms of surfactant chemistry are well established, yet there has been only a limited amount of published literature pertaining to characterizing the behavior of surfactants in developer systems for photoresists. This project explores the application of surfactants in an aqueous tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) based developer for two optical resists, one incorporating a 2,1,4- diazonaphthoquinone (DNQ) sensitizer, while the other incorporates a 2,1,5-DNQ sensitizer. In addition, each optical resist is based on different positive novolac resins with distinct structural properties. This feature aids in illustrating the improtance of matching the developer surfactant with the photoresist resin structure. Four distinct non-ionic surfactants with well published physical and chemical properties are examined. Properties of the surfactants explored include differences in structure, surfactant concentration, various degrees of hydrophilic versus lipophilic content (known as the HLB, or hydrophilic - lipophilic balance), and the differences in reported critical micelle concentration (CMC). Previous research investigated the performance characteristics of the 2,1,5-DNQ for these four surfactants. This investigation is an extension of the previous project by next considering a significantly different photoresist. A discussion of potential mechanisms of the solubilization and wetting effects is utilized to promote an understanding of surfactant effects in resist/developer systems. Also, because of the extensive characterization involved in screening surfactants, a recommended selection and screening scheme is proposed.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 June 1992
PDF: 18 pages
Proc. SPIE 1672, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing IX, (1 June 1992); doi: 10.1117/12.59762
Show Author Affiliations
Gary E. Flores, OCG Microelectronics Materials, Inc. (United States)
James E. Loftus, Union Carbide Corp. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1672:
Advances in Resist Technology and Processing IX
Anthony E. Novembre, Editor(s)

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