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Proceedings Paper

Embedding multiple watermarks in the DFT domain using low- and high-frequency bands
Author(s): Emir Ganic; Scott D. Dexter; Ahmet M. Eskicioglu
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Paper Abstract

Although semi-blind and blind watermarking schemes based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) or Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) are robust to a number of attacks, they fail in the presence of geometric attacks such as rotation, scaling, and translation. The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of a real image is conjugate symmetric, resulting in a symmetric DFT spectrum. Because of this property, the popularity of DFT-based watermarking has increased in the last few years. In a recent paper, we generalized a circular watermarking idea to embed multiple watermarks in lower and higher frequencies. Nevertheless, a circular watermark is visible in the DFT domain, providing a potential hacker with valuable information about the location of the watermark. In this paper, our focus is on embedding multiple watermarks that are not visible in the DFT domain. Using several frequency bands increases the overall robustness of the proposed watermarking scheme. Specifically, our experiments show that the watermark embedded in lower frequencies is robust to one set of attacks, and the watermark embedded in higher frequencies is robust to a different set of attacks.

Paper Details

Date Published: 21 March 2005
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 5681, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII, (21 March 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.594697
Show Author Affiliations
Emir Ganic, CUNY/Brooklyn College (United States)
Scott D. Dexter, CUNY/Brooklyn College (United States)
Ahmet M. Eskicioglu, CUNY/Brooklyn College (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5681:
Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII
Edward J. Delp III; Ping W. Wong, Editor(s)

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