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Proceedings Paper

From planar to fiber chiral gratings
Author(s): Azriel Z. Genack; Victor I. Kopp; Victor M. Churikov; Jonathan Singer; Norman Chao; Daniel Neugroschl
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Paper Abstract

We describe the development of fiber chiral gratings and discuss salient similarities and differences from planar chiral structures. Planar chiral structures include cholesteric liquid crystals and structured thin films produced by oblique deposition of dielectric materials on a rotating substrate. These are composed of uniform anisotropic planes with 180 degrees rotation symmetry which rotate uniformly with displacement perpendicular to the planes so that the pitch is equal to twice the period. The sinusoidal modulation of the structure which possesses double-helix symmetry results in a single band gap for co-handed light with the same sense of circular polarization as the handedness of the helical structure. Orthogonally polarized light is freely transmitted. Within the band gap the wavelength in the medium equals the structure pitch. Double-helix symmetry may also be implemented into a fiber geometry by twisting glass optical fiber with noncircular core cross section as it passes through a miniature oven. In addition to the polarization-selective resonant band observed in planar chiral gratings, we observe two additional modes of optical interaction when the pitch exceeds the wavelength in the fiber. In chiral long period gratings, dips in transmission are observed at wavelengths associated with coupling of the core mode and distinct cladding modes mediated by the chiral grating. In chiral intermediate period gratings, a broad scattering band is observed due to scattering out of the fiber into a continuum of states. Gratings with uniform pitch as well as with a specially designed pitch profile can be utilized to produce a variety of polarization selective devices. In addition to describing optical chiral gratings, we describe studies of microwave planar and fiber gratings, which played a key role in the development of optical fiber chiral gratings.

Paper Details

Date Published: 12 April 2005
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 5741, Emerging Liquid Crystal Technologies, (12 April 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.590952
Show Author Affiliations
Azriel Z. Genack, Chiral Photonics, Inc. (United States)
Queens College/CUNY (United States)
Victor I. Kopp, Chiral Photonics, Inc. (United States)
Victor M. Churikov, Chiral Photonics, Inc. (United States)
Jonathan Singer, Chiral Photonics, Inc. (United States)
Norman Chao, Chiral Photonics, Inc. (United States)
Daniel Neugroschl, Chiral Photonics, Inc. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5741:
Emerging Liquid Crystal Technologies
Liang-Chy Chien, Editor(s)

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