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Proceedings Paper

Integer-DCT-based reversible image watermarking by adaptive coefficient modification
Author(s): Bian Yang; Martin Schmucker; Xiamu Niu; Christoph Busch; Shenghe Sun
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Paper Abstract

We investigate in this paper several possible methods to improve the performance of the bit-shifting operation based reversible image watermarking algorithm in the integer DCT domain. In view of the large distortion caused by the modification of high-amplitude coefficients in the integer DCT domain, several coefficient selection methods are proposed to provide the coefficient modification process with some adaptability to match the coefficient amplitudes’ status of different 8-by-8 DCT coefficient blocks. The proposed adaptive modification methods include global coefficient-group distortion sorting, zero-tree DCT prediction, and a low frequency based coefficient prediction method for block classification. All these methods are supposed to optimize the bit-shifting based coefficient modification process so as to improve the watermarking performance in terms of capacity/distortion ratio. Comparisons are presented for these methods in aspects of performance in terms of capacity/distortion ratio, performance stability, performance scalability, algorithm complexity and security. Compared to our old integer DCT based scheme and other recently proposed reversible image watermarking algorithms, some of the proposed methods exhibit much improved performances, among which the low frequency based coefficient prediction methods bear highest efficiency to predict the coefficient amplitudes’ status, leading to distinct improved watermarking performance in most aspects. Detailed experimental results and performance analysis are also given for all the proposed algorithms and several other reversible watermarking algorithms.

Paper Details

Date Published: 21 March 2005
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 5681, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII, (21 March 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.588147
Show Author Affiliations
Bian Yang, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)
Martin Schmucker, Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics (Germany)
Xiamu Niu, Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics (Germany)
Christoph Busch, Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics (Germany)
Shenghe Sun, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5681:
Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII
Edward J. Delp; Ping W. Wong, Editor(s)

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