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Proceedings Paper

Use of inferential statistics to estimate error probability of video watermarks
Author(s): Isao Echizen; Hiroshi Yoshiura; Yasuhiro Fujii; Takaaki Yamada; Satoru Tezuka
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Paper Abstract

Video watermarks can be used to embed copyright and copy-control information and will there for be used in DVD players and recorders as well as in digital broadcasting equipment. Errors in video watermark detection can cause serious problems, such as erroneous indication of illegal copying and erroneous copy control. These errors could not, however, be eliminated because watermarked pictures are subjected to wide varieties of image processing such as compression, resizing, filtering, or D/A or A/D conversion. Estimating errors of video watermarks is therefore an essential requirement for electric equipment that is to use copyright and copy-control information properly. This paper proposes a video watermarking method that estimates error probability from each watermarked frame at hand after image processing by using the expectation-maximization algorithm from inferential statistics. The paper also proposes a reliable detection system of video watermarks by using the proposed method. Experimental evaluations have shown that the new method can be used reliably with the margin factor and can be widely used in electric equipment as well as content-distribution systems.

Paper Details

Date Published: 21 March 2005
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 5681, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII, (21 March 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.586729
Show Author Affiliations
Isao Echizen, Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan)
Hiroshi Yoshiura, Univ. of Electro-Communications (Japan)
Yasuhiro Fujii, Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan)
Takaaki Yamada, Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan)
Satoru Tezuka, Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5681:
Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII
Edward J. Delp; Ping W. Wong, Editor(s)

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