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Proceedings Paper

Multilevel 2D bar codes: toward high capacity storage modules for multimedia security and management
Author(s): Renato Villan; Sviatoslav Voloshynovskiy; Oleksiy Koval; Thierry Pun
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Paper Abstract

In this paper, we deal with the design of high rate multilevel two-dimensional (2D) bar codes for the print-and-scan channel. Firstly, we derive an upper bound on the maximum achievable rate of these codes by studying an inter-symbol interference (ISI) free, perfectly synchronized, and noiseless print-and-scan channel, in which the printer device uses halftoning in order to simulate multiple gray levels. Secondly, we present a new model of the print-and-scan channel specifically adapted to the multilevel 2D bar code application. This model, inspired by our experimental work, assumes no ISI and perfect synchronization, but independence between the channel input and the noise is not required. For completeness, we briefly review three state-of-the-art coded modulation techniques for the additive white Gaussian noise channel in the high signal-to-noise ratio regime, namely, multilevel coding with multistage decoding (MLC/MSD), multilevel coding with parallel independent decoding, and bit-interleaved coded modulation. We then derive the information capacity of our print-and-scan channel model and extend the theory of MLC/MSD to this channel. Finally, we present experimental results confirming the validity of our channel model, and showing that multilevel 2D bar codes using MLC/MSD can reliably achieve the high rate storage requirements of many multimedia security and data management applications.

Paper Details

Date Published: 21 March 2005
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 5681, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII, (21 March 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.586274
Show Author Affiliations
Renato Villan, Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland)
Sviatoslav Voloshynovskiy, Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland)
Oleksiy Koval, Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland)
Thierry Pun, Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5681:
Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII
Edward J. Delp; Ping W. Wong, Editor(s)

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