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Proceedings Paper

Fields in laser-ablated plasmas generalized to degenerate electrons and to Fermi energy in nuclei with change to quark-gluon plasma
Author(s): Heinrich Hora; George H. Miley; Frederick Osman; Peter X. Hammerling
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Paper Abstract

The studies of laser ablation have lead to a new theory of nuclei, endothermic nuclei generation and quark-gluon plasmas. The surface of ablated plasma expanding into vacuum after high power laser irradiation of targets, contains an electric double layer having the thickness of the Debye length. This led to the discovery of surface tension of plasmas and to the internal dynamic electric fields in all inhomogeneous plasmas. The surface causes stabilization by short length surface waves smoothing the expanding plasma plume. Generalizing this to the degenerate electrons in a metal with the Fermi energy instead of the temperature, resulted in the surface tension of metals in agreement with measurements. Taking then the Fermi energy in the Debye length for nucleons results in a theory of nuclei with stable confinement of protons and neutrons just at the well known nuclear density, and in the Debye length equal to Hofstadter's decay of the nuclear surface. Increasing the nuclear density by a factor of 6 leads to the change of the Fermi energy into its relativistic branch where no surface energy is possible and the particle mass is not defined, permitting the quark-gluon plasma. Expansion of this higher density at the big band or in a supernova results in nucleation and element generation. The Boltzmann equilibrium permits the synthesis of nuclei even in the endothermic range limited to about uranium.

Paper Details

Date Published: 20 September 2004
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 5448, High-Power Laser Ablation V, (20 September 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.566507
Show Author Affiliations
Heinrich Hora, Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)
George H. Miley, Univ. of Illinois/Urbana-Champaign (United States)
Frederick Osman, Univ. Western Sydney (Australia)
Peter X. Hammerling, Quantum Resonance, Inc. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5448:
High-Power Laser Ablation V
Claude R. Phipps, Editor(s)

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