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Proceedings Paper

Smart pixels
Author(s): Peter Seitz
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Paper Abstract

Semiconductor technology progresses at a relentless pace, making it possible to provide image sensors and each pixel with an increasing amount of custom analog and digital functionality. As experience with such photosensor functionality grows, an increasing variety of modular building blocks become available for smart pixels, single-chip digital cameras and functional image sensors. Examples include a non-linear pixel response circuit for high-dynamic range imaging with a dynamic range exceeding 180 dB, low-noise amplifiers and avalanche-effect pixels for high-sensitivity detection performance approaching single-photoelectron resolution, lock-in pixels for optical time-of-flight range cameras with sub-centimeter distance resolution and in-pixel demodulation circuits for optical coherence tomography imaging. The future is seen in system-on-a-chip machine vision cameras (“seeing chips”), post-processing with non-silicon materials for the extension of the detection range to the X-ray, ultraviolet and infrared spectrum, the use of organic semiconductors for low-cost large-area photonic microsystems, as well as imaging of fields other than electromagnetic radiation.

Paper Details

Date Published: 10 September 2004
PDF: 13 pages
Proc. SPIE 5457, Optical Metrology in Production Engineering, (10 September 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.554753
Show Author Affiliations
Peter Seitz, Ctr. Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique SA (Switzerland)
Univ. of Neuchatel (Switzerland)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5457:
Optical Metrology in Production Engineering
Wolfgang Osten; Mitsuo Takeda, Editor(s)

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