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Proceedings Paper

A cryogenic imaging x-ray spectrometer for XEUS readout by frequency-division SQUID multiplexers
Author(s): Piet A. J. de Korte; John J. van Baar; Norman H. R. Baars; Frank E. Bakker; Wouter M. Bergmann Tiest; Marcel P. Bruijn; Alexander Germeau; Henk F. C. Hoevers; Mikko Kiviranta; Eric Krouwer; Jan van der Kuur; Marco P. Lubbers; Wim A. Mels; Marcel L. Ridder; Heikki Seppae; Remco J. Wiegerink
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Paper Abstract

A micro-calorimeter array with superconducting transition-edge sensors read out by a SQUID-based frequency-domain multiplexer is under development for the X-ray imaging spectrometer on board ESA’s X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy (XEUS) mission. The XEUS requirements are 2 and 5 eV FWHM energy resolution for 2 and 7 keV X-rays, respectively. An array of 32 x 32 pixels with 250 micron square pixels is envisaged. SRON and MESA+ have developed 5 x 5 imaging micro-calorimeter prototype arrays along a bulk micromachining and a surface micromachining route. The present state of array design and development with emphasis on pixel-to-pixel performance measurements of thermal and I-V characteristics, sensor noise and energy resolution are presented. SRON and VTT are developing frequency-domain multiplexing with SQUID current amplifiers to read out the 32 x 32 array. The concept for the frequency division multiplexing read-out will be presented and its performance characteristics discussed. Recent results of sensor operation under AC-bias (500 kHz) are presented.

Paper Details

Date Published: 29 September 2004
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 5501, High-Energy Detectors in Astronomy, (29 September 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.552933
Show Author Affiliations
Piet A. J. de Korte, Space Research Organization Netherlands (Netherlands)
John J. van Baar, Univ. of Twente (Netherlands)
Norman H. R. Baars, Space Research Organization Netherlands (Netherlands)
Frank E. Bakker, Space Research Organization Netherlands (Netherlands)
Wouter M. Bergmann Tiest, Space Research Organization Netherlands (Netherlands)
Marcel P. Bruijn, Space Research Organization Netherlands (Netherlands)
Alexander Germeau, Space Research Organization Netherlands (Netherlands)
Henk F. C. Hoevers, Space Research Organization Netherlands (Netherlands)
Mikko Kiviranta, VTT Information Technology (Finland)
Eric Krouwer, Space Research Organization Netherlands (Netherlands)
Jan van der Kuur, Space Research Organization Netherlands (Netherlands)
Marco P. Lubbers, Space Research Organization Netherlands (Netherlands)
Wim A. Mels, Space Research Organization Netherlands (Netherlands)
Marcel L. Ridder, Space Research Organization Netherlands (Netherlands)
Heikki Seppae, VTT Information Technology (Finland)
Remco J. Wiegerink, Univ. of Twente (Netherlands)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5501:
High-Energy Detectors in Astronomy
Andrew D. Holland, Editor(s)

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