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Proceedings Paper

Hard x-ray optics: from HEFT to NuSTAR
Author(s): Jason E. Koglin; C. M. Hubert Chen; Jim C. Chonko; Finn E. Christensen; William W. Craig; Todd R. Decker; Charles J. Hailey; Fiona A. Harrison; Carsten P. Jensen; Kristin K. Madsen; Michael J. Pivovaroff; Marcela Stern; David L. Windt; Eric Ziegler
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Paper Abstract

Focusing optics are now poised to dramatically improve the sensitivity and angular resolution at energies above 10 keV to levels that were previously unachievable by the past generation of background limited collimated and coded-aperture instruments. Active balloon programs (HEFT), possible Explorer-class satellites (NuSTAR - currently under Phase A study), and major X-ray observatories (Con-X HXT) using focusing optics will play a major role in future observations of a wide range of objects including young supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and galaxy clusters. These instruments call for low cost, grazing incidence optics coated with depth-graded multilayer films that can be nested to achieve large collecting areas. Our approach to building such instruments is to mount segmented mirror shells with our novel error-compensating, monolithic assembly and alignment (EMAAL) procedure. This process involves constraining the mirror segments to successive layers of graphite rods that are precisely machined to the required conic-approximation Wolter-I geometry. We present results of our continued development of thermally formed glass substrates that have been used to build three HEFT telescopes and are proposed for NuSTAR. We demonstrate how our experience in manufacturing complete HEFT telescopes, as well as our experience developing higher performance prototype optics, will lead to the successful production of telescopes that meet the NuSTAR design goals.

Paper Details

Date Published: 11 October 2004
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 5488, UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, (11 October 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.552470
Show Author Affiliations
Jason E. Koglin, Columbia Univ. (United States)
C. M. Hubert Chen, California Institute of Technology (United States)
Jim C. Chonko, Columbia Univ. (United States)
Finn E. Christensen, Danish Space Research Institute (Denmark)
William W. Craig, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (United States)
Todd R. Decker, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (United States)
Charles J. Hailey, Columbia Univ. (United States)
Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology (United States)
Carsten P. Jensen, Danish Space Research Institute (Denmark)
Kristin K. Madsen, Danish Space Research Institute (Denmark)
Michael J. Pivovaroff, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (United States)
Marcela Stern, Columbia Univ. (United States)
David L. Windt, Columbia Univ. (United States)
Eric Ziegler, European Sychrotron Radiation Facility (France)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5488:
UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems
Guenther Hasinger; Martin J. L. Turner, Editor(s)

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