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Proceedings Paper

Thin-foil reflection gratings for Constellation-X
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Paper Abstract

The Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) on Constellation-X is designed to supply astronomers with high spectral resolution in the soft x-ray band from 0.25 to 2 keV. High resolution, large collecting area and low mass at grazing incidence require very flat and thin grating substrates, or thin-foil optics. Thin foils typically have a diameter-to-thickness ratio of 200 or higher and as a result very low stiffness. This poses a number of technological challenges in the areas of shaping, handling, positioning, and mounting of such optics. The most minute forces (gravity sag, friction, thermal mismatch with optic mount, etc.) can lead to intolerable deformations and limit figure metrology repeatability. We present results of our efforts in the manipulation and metrology of suitable grating substrates, utilizing a novel low-stress foil holder with friction-reducing flexures. A large number of reflection gratings is needed to achieve the required collecting area. We have employed nanoimprint lithography (NIL) - which uses imprint films as thin as 100 nm or less - for the high-fidelity and low-stress replication from 100 mm diameter saw-tooth grating masters.

Paper Details

Date Published: 11 October 2004
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 5488, UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, (11 October 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.552001
Show Author Affiliations
Ralf K. Heilmann, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
Mireille Akilian, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
Chih-Hao Chang, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
Craig R. Forest, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
Chulmin Joo, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
Andrew Lapsa, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
Juan C. Montoya, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
Mark L. Schattenburg, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5488:
UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems
Guenther Hasinger; Martin J. L. Turner, Editor(s)

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