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Proceedings Paper

Silicon planar technology for single-photon optical detectors
Author(s): Emilio Sciacca; Andrea C. Giudice; Delfo Sanfilippo; Salvatore Lombardo; Franco Zappa; Rosario Cosentino; Massimo Cataldo Mazzillo; Massimo Ghioni; Giorgio Fallica; Massimiliano Belluso; Giovanni Bonanno; Sergio Cova; Emanuele Rimini
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Paper Abstract

In this paper we report the results relative to the design and fabrication of Single Photon Avalanche Detectors (SPAD) operating at low voltage in planar technology. These silicon sensors consist of pn junctions that are able to remain quiescent above the breakdown voltage until a photon is absorbed in the depletion volume. This event is detected through an avalanche current pulse. Device design and critical issues in the technology are discussed. Experimental test procedures are then described for dark-counting rate, afterpulsing probability, photon timing resolution, quantum detection efficiency. Through these experimental setups we have measured the electrical and optical performances of different SPAD technology generations. The results from these measurements indicate that in order to obtain low-noise detectors it is necessary to introduce a local gettering process and to realize the diode cathode through in situ doped polysilicon deposition. With such technology low noise detectors with dark counting rates at room temperature down to 10c/s for devices with 10mm diameter, down to 1kc/s for 50mm diameter have been obtained. Noticeable results have been obtained also as far as time jitter and quantum detection efficiency are concerned. This technology is suitable for monolithic integration of SPAD detectors and associated circuits. Small arrays have already been designed and fabricated. Preliminary results indicate that good dark count rate uniformity over the different array pixels has already been obtained.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 September 2004
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 5459, Optical Sensing, (1 September 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.545026
Show Author Affiliations
Emilio Sciacca, CNR/IMM (Italy)
Andrea C. Giudice, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)
Delfo Sanfilippo, STMicroelectronics (Italy)
Salvatore Lombardo, CNR/IMM (Italy)
Franco Zappa, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)
Rosario Cosentino, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania (Italy)
Massimo Cataldo Mazzillo, STMicroelectronics (Italy)
Massimo Ghioni, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)
Giorgio Fallica, STMicroelectronics (Italy)
Massimiliano Belluso, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania (Italy)
Giovanni Bonanno, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania (Italy)
Sergio Cova, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)
Emanuele Rimini, Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi (Italy)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5459:
Optical Sensing
Brian Culshaw; Anna Grazia Mignani; Rainer Riesenberg, Editor(s)

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