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Proceedings Paper

Wafer-scale replication and testing of micro-optical components for VCSELs
Author(s): Christiane Gimkiewicz; Michael Moser; Samuel Obi; Claus Urban; Joern Sparre Pedersen; Hans Thiele; Christian Zschokke; Michael T. Gale
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Paper Abstract

VCSELs (Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers) emit circularly symmetric beams vertical to the substrate; the small footprint of the active area (around 400 um2) enables the simultaneous fabrication of several thousand devices on a single wafer. Micro-optical components can modify the free-space optical properties of VCSELs for applications such as fiber-coupling in transceiver modules, illumination purposes, or beam profiling in sensing applications. However, the alignment of a laser towards a lens, for example, is expensive when performed separately for each device. Here we demonstrate a wafer-scale replication process to realise microlenses directly on top of the undiced VCSEL wafers. The process combines uv-casting and lithography to achieve material-free bonding pads and dicing lines. Several examples of lenses and gratings are given. An organically modified sol-gel material (ORMOCER) has been used as lens material. The micro-optical components on the wafer show good stability while sawing and bonding, where temperatures up to 220°C may occur. We have compared refractive lenses on top of the VCSELs with lenses on glass substrates. The lenses on the glass wafers were illuminated from the back-side by a planar wave. Spot diameters around 1.2 um and focal lengths of 30 um to 100 um were measured depending on the radii of curvature. On the VCSELs the lenses showed a strong influence on the transversal mode behaviour.

Paper Details

Date Published: 8 September 2004
PDF: 14 pages
Proc. SPIE 5453, Micro-Optics, VCSELs, and Photonic Interconnects, (8 September 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.544793
Show Author Affiliations
Christiane Gimkiewicz, Ctr. Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique SA (Switzerland)
Michael Moser, Avalon Photonics Ltd. (Switzerland)
Samuel Obi, Ctr. Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique SA (Switzerland)
Claus Urban, Ctr. Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique SA (Switzerland)
Joern Sparre Pedersen, Ctr. Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique SA (Switzerland)
Hans Thiele, Ctr. Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique SA (Switzerland)
Christian Zschokke, Ctr. Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique SA (Switzerland)
Michael T. Gale, Ctr. Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique SA (Switzerland)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5453:
Micro-Optics, VCSELs, and Photonic Interconnects
Hugo Thienpont; Kent D. Choquette; Mohammad R. Taghizadeh, Editor(s)

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